Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 15(4) [Supplementary Part V], September 2014, pp. 

752-763 

 

752 

 

 

Abstract

 

Cities and towns are dynamic systems whose shape 

and performance alters gradually. Factors as industrialization, 
migrations of villagers to cities according to land reforms, successive 
droughts, deceptive urban attractions and villages’ repulsive agents, 
has cause daily increase in the cities’ sizes and numbers and also has 
altered their shapes and performance. This process has resulted in the 
emersion of metropolises as Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Mashhad and 
Tabriz. The high density of population and activity in metropolises 
has lowered the citizens’ life qualities and caused economic, social 
and environmental problems. This has resulted in the construction of 
new cities with the purpose of decentralization of the mother cities. 
In order to approach to this purpose, prospections have been made 
about the attraction of population and occupations. When talking 
about new cities, automatically our mind goes towards utopias and an 
aggregation of ideals in these cities; cities which are optimum in their 
design, construction and execution and are accordant to innovative 
urban thoughts; and all citizens can live in safe spaces having 
facilities, sustainable neighborhood centers, powerful social centers 
with a calmness which has been predicted in the attitude of such 
cities. A question about if Iran’s new cities have such qualifications, 
arises here. This article is to survey these cities’ aims and reasons of 
failure, by studying their process of alterations, and finally evaluates 
Sadra new city as a case study.  

 

Keywords

 

Challenges and Problems, Efficiency and 

Performance, Sadra new city.  

 

I.  I

NTRODUCTION

 

EW cities are considered as a new experience in Iran’s 
urban system. These cities are the ones which have been 

considered as a mean to solve Iran’s urban problems, but most 
of them have proved to fail over time. Many reasons have 
been explained in justification of the failure of Iran’s new 
cities. Currently, while two decades have passed from the 
initiation of constructing new cities in the country, 

 

 

considering obstacles and problems of these cities and also 
their necessities and capacities of creation and expansion, 
evaluation and assessment of the past performance of new 
cities is inevitable. The mentioned evaluation can recognize 
the current situations of the new cities and review the actions 
and operations taken through the construction and expansion 
of these cities, and finally with a realistic and neutral criticism, 
lead to solutions by which more coordinated, clear and 
regulated operations can be taken considering examples from 
the past.  

Sadra new city, located at 15 kilometer North West of 

Shiraz, as the first new city in Shiraz urban area, has been 
constructed with the purpose of organization of residential 
systems and attraction of the crowd overflow of Shiraz 
metropolis and ease the burden of the city's problems. As a 
result, evaluation of the performance and role of Sadra new 
city, and recognition of its success in achieving its primary 
objectives, and analyzing its obstacles and problems, and the 
rate of its residents’ satisfaction is inevitable towards its future 
growth and development.  

II.  M

ATERIALS AND METHODS

 

This research belongs to applied researches’ category. Applied 
researches emphasize on the most effective measures, as these 
researches are conducted towards the scientific practice of 
knowledge. In the aspect of modality and methods, this 
research belongs to the cross-sectional research class.  

In order to gather the required information in theoretical fields 
and its records, library and note taking methods have been 
used; also, to increase the reality factor, and to evaluate the 
facilities, utilities and the residents' satisfaction, field research 
methods (questionnaires and interviews with residents and 
city officials) are applied. After collecting the questionnaire 
results and converting those into graphs in SPSS, finally, to 

A Study on the New Towns’ Rate of Success 

and Performance, and Scrutinizing their 

Obstacles and Problems. 

(Case Study: Sadra New City) 

Alireza Izadi, Giti Haghani 

N

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 15(4) [Supplementary Part V], September 2014, pp. 

752-763 

 

753 

 

evaluate and identify internal strengths and weaknesses and 
external opportunities and threats, and to make analysis and 
conclusion from mentioned results, SWOT analysis and 
modeling method is utilized. 

 

III.  PROBLEM

 

STATEMENT 

The concept of City is beyond a physical phenomenon which we 
know today; yet with a broader sense of political and spiritual 
community, is the base of civilization [7]. Cities have always formed 
and developed,   influenced by various factors and forces. Basically, 
a City is a social – economic phenomenon, and people aggregate in a 
limited, dense area to live, work and communicate, conclusively, 
they gradually from a city. Cities are being altered by means of 
social changes, demographic shifts, economic alterations and 
technological innovations. Providing the increase in population, 
activities and investments expand greatly and the spatial organization 
and system of cities undergoes major changes [17].  
The topic of New cities is not a new matter. On behalf of new 
settlements, new cities having a history of several thousand years, 
have been constructed based on a pre-thought structure. As samples, 
we can mention Mohenjo-daro which has been constructed four 
thousand years ago; ancient Greek city-states; defensive cities of the 
Renaissance, ideal cities of the nineteenth century; garden cities of 
the twentieth century, and the contemporary new cities. [13]. 
The theory of the new cities, from its embryonic stage in the 
nineteenth century, to its variant and complete versions after the 
World War I & II, has been utilized in the different countries all over 
world, especially after the second half of the nineteenth century. 
Certainly, every city has been once considered as a new city, but the 
factor that causes difference between a number of new cities in the 
world and some other urban settlements, is being targeted, having 
preset programs and being pre-thought the role of which is seen in 
the shaping and the process of the development of the new cities [4]. 
In Iran also, history of the advent of new cities with their modern 
concept, has initiated in the current century. The planning of the new 
cities in Iran, has been performed according to political and military 
issues. Specially, before the Islamic Revolution, new cities have 
majorly been designed to provide residence and shelter for the oil 
industry workers [23].  
Urbanization and urban planning are always associated with issues 
such as unemployment and the employment, immigration, traffic, 
lack of housing, marginalization, skyrocketing of population, land 
degradation and conversion, and many other phenomena; other 
problems arise from within these problems mentioned. Technology 
transfer and industrial development, road development cultural 
facilities and other enticing attractions in large cities, have caused 
events as depopulation of the villages, conversion of the villages to 
small cities, conversion of small cities to medium or big ones and 
increase the number of cities; which can’t continue their healthy 
urban life, and eventually, they don’t have the capacity of offering 
necessary civil services to their residents [22].  

When talking about a new city, the purpose is a city which does not 
rely on the metropolis in aspects like employment, and it should be 
self-sufficient in terms of civil services. A new city, is a planned 
community that is created in response to predetermined objectives. 
Actually self-sufficiency, independence and sustainability are the 
criteria for successful new cities. Goals and Strategies for the new 
cities, consists of decentralization, spatial organization, creating 
poles of growth, by attracting crowd overflows, controlling the 
growth of metropolitan cities,  transferring  political- administrative 
institutions, preventing the destruction of agricultural land, 
development of lowered areas, renewing destroyed urban areas, rural 
integration, creating the perfect atmosphere for workers of the 
industrial sector and preventing the growth of metropolitan cities. 
[24]. 
With respect to the necessity of the new cities in modern societies, in 
order to improve them, it is inevitable to study the performance of 
these cities and their problems and challenges in various aspects. 
Evaluation of Iran’s new cities and comparing it with its intended 
purposes, indicates that some of these cities have not yet been able to 
absorb the predicted population [1]. 
What factors, despite many irreversible investments, have conducted 
some of Iran’s new cities to fail to reach their anticipated goals? The 
lack of accurate determination of the legal status of new cities, and 
not having defined the resources to cover the expenses of the 
construction of these cities, and lack of coordination and cooperation 
between different organizations, lack of elements as infrastructures, 
economic activities, self-sufficiency and independence, also factors 
like anonymity of the new cities, their being as residential  cities and 
their unsuitable location and etc. are some reasons among the most 
important ones which have prevented the new cities from reaching to 
their predicted goals. Sadra new city, with an area of about 2048 
hectares, located at fifteen kilometers north of Shiraz, has been 
localized near some low mountains, and in an appropriate distance 
from the axis of Shiraz - Sepidan communicating road, in the lands 
between Bajgah plain and Gouyom. Studies, planning and design of 
Sadra new city has started in April 1990. These studies are based on 
the location of Shiraz and its satellite towns and the prospects for 
development in these areas, the construction and implementation of 
the project has been assigned to the “Omraane Shahrhaye Jadid” civil 
company, its operations began in 1991 and its population settlement 
has started from 1996 .[16].  
 

IV.  RESEARCH

 

NECESSITY 

The major purpose of new cities, has been to absorb the 

crowd overflow from big cities, to reduce traffic load and to 
improve the quality of living in large cities. Taking these aims 
into consideration, which have been approved by the majority 
of experts and consultants at the time when they have been 
defined; has had a major impact on the localization and the 
quality of construction of the new cities; they have also 
influenced the objective consequential, moreover, they have 
limited the opportunity to think about the other performances 

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 15(4) [Supplementary Part V], September 2014, pp. 

752-763 

 

754 

 

of new cities and their position in the residential system of the 
country and the national and regional establishment. However, 
the role of new cities has not yet been properly determined in 
national urbanization politics, in the urban network system of 
the country, and in the country’s planning system. The overall 
evaluation of the strategic localization plans, indicates that 
instead of being based on expert analysis and selection of the 
most suitable place to build a new city and provide practical 
strategies for creating them, most of the plans are just 
presenting a set of general regional macroeconomic data, and 
justifications of the need for the establishment of new cities 
and a selected option for location, strategies for how to access 
the new city and an overview of infrastructures available; 
They actually fail to submit realistic solutions to attract 
population and activities to new cities [ ]. Not only 
construction of Sadra new city has been aimed at attracting the 
population overflow of Fars Province, and particularly the 
population of Shiraz, as a metropolitan city, but also creating 
green identity  culture and cultural, scientific and research 
performance, have also been considered by policy-makers. 
Indeed, as the first new city in the urban region of Shiraz, 
Sadra new city has been established in order to organize the 
residential system and to absorb the overflow of population 
from Shiraz metropolitan city, and to and ease the burden of 
its problems. However, apparently, Sadra new city, has not 
been successful in achieving the goals for which it has been 
designed. According to the current problems of this new city, 
it is necessary to treated more seriously to improve the 
shortcomings and deficiencies. In order to be able to take 
practical measures as a remedy for these obstacles, first of all, 
we have to obtain proper understanding of the problems and 
obstacles. The main problems in the process of formation and 
functioning of new cities, mostly lead to the prevention from 
meeting their initial goals. In this research, we are to review 
and prioritize the reasons of the failure mentioned, by 
providing the most important ones. As a result, performance 
evaluation and recognition of the role of Sadra new city and 
its success in achieving its primary objectives, to guide its 
future development and growth, and also examination of the 
challenges and problems of the city is undeniable. Thereupon, 
the results of this study could be effective to improve the 
situation of the new city and its residents’ quality of life, and 
consequently Shiraz metropolis in different ways, and could 
be used by planners and managers.  

 

V.  R

ESEARCH 

O

BJECTIVES

 

The overall objectives of this research are as below: 
- Evaluation of the criteria for independence, self-

sufficiency, sustainability and their impact on new cities and 
the rate of their being achieved in Sadra new city.  

-  Performance assessment of Sadra new city, in relation to 

its overall expected objectives and particularly its performance 

in Shiraz urban area. 

- Evaluation of the Sadra new cities success rate in 

population absorption, its residents' rate satisfaction, and the 
relationship between this rate of satisfaction and the existing 
urban facilities. 

Following the main objectives of the research, the specific 

goal of the research is expressed as follows: 

-  Identification of the major reasons for success and failure 

of Sadra new city, analyzing and prioritizing its problems and 
challenges and providing solutions to improve the situation. 

VI.  T

HE 

R

ESEARCH 

H

YPOTHESES

 

According to the purposes of research and based on the 
literature and theoretical framework, the research hypotheses 
are: 

-  It seems that Sadra new city does not have the 

qualifications of a successful new city (self-
sufficiency, independence and sustainability). 

-  It seems that Sadra new city, has failed to realize the 

goals for which it has been designed.  

-  It seems that the residents of Sadra new city are not 

satisfied from their residence there, and there exists a 
direct relationship between the length of the 
residents’ stay and their satisfaction of urban 
facilities and equipment.  

 

VII.  P

RINCIPLES AND 

C

RITERIA 

F

OR 

A

NALYSIS

 

In this research we are to review the success rate and 

efficiency of Sadra new city with respect to indicators of 
stability, independence and self-sufficiency, and in order to 
answer to the hypotheses mentioned, we survey the criteria 
and sub-criteria for Sadra new city. In this context, the 
citizens’ subjective indicators are also listed. Consequently, 
with all the above data, a questionnaire has been developed. 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 
 

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 15(4) [Supplementary Part V], September 2014, pp. 

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                    VIII.   DATA ANALYSIS 
In this study, by analyzing the collected realistic data, we 

try to approach the research scientific questions. The 
mentioned data refers to the data collected through interviews, 
questionnaires or surveys and the usage of documentations. 
Therefore, by organizing data, and then analyzing them, then 
drawing conclusions from them through specific methods, 
research main question will be answered (Whether Sadra has 
been able to achieve the objectives for which it is designed to, 

as a new city or not , and whether it has achieved success to 
role as a stand-alone, self- sufficient new city or not?).  

VIII – I:

 

In order to avoid redundancy, this section 

discusses only some of the results presented in the tables and 
graphs.  

VIII-I-I: Descriptive study of the statistical sample based on 

age: 

Table II, shows the frequency and percentage of 

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
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respondents by age. Among 140 sample data, 14 people are 
younger than 20 years old (10 percent), 53 of them are 
between 20 and 30 years old (37.9 percent), 56 of them are 
between 30 to 40 years old (40 percent), 9 people between 40 
to 50 years old (6.4 percent), 6 people between 50 to 60 years 
old (4.3 percent), and finally 2 people are older than 60 (1.4 
percent).  The data in table below shows that the age range is 
from below 20 years to over 60 years. The majority of 
respondents were aged 40-30 years, the number of whom is 56 
people (40%). While the minimum number of subjects aged 
over 60 years (4/1 percent). The mean age of the sample is 
26.1 years old. 

 
Table II: Frequency and percentage of respondents by age: 

Age Frequency  Percentage 

Below 20 years  

14 

10 

20-30 years 

53 37.9 

30-40 years 

56 

40 

40-50 years 

9 6.4 

50-60 years 

4.3 

Over 60 years 

2 1.4 

Total 

140 

100 

 
VIII-I-I: Descriptive study of the statistical sample based on 

duration of residence: 

Table III shows the frequency and percentage of 

respondents in terms of their duration of residence in Sadra 
new city. The data in the table below shows that 51 of 
respondents have less than 2 years of residence duration 
(36.4%), 81 of them have 3-7 years of residence duration 
(57.9%), 6 of them have 8-10 years (4.3%), and 2 of them 
have over 10 years of residence (1.4%).  

 
Table III: Frequency and percentage of respondents by 

residence duration: 

Residence Duration 

Frequency Percentage 

Less than 2 years 

51 

36.4 

3-7 years 

81 57.9 

8-10 years 

4.3 

Over 10 years 

2 1.4 

Total 

140 

100 

 
VIII-I-III: Descriptive study of the statistical sample based 

on work place: 

Table IV shows the frequency and percentage of 

respondents in terms of their work place. The data in the table 
below, shows that the work places of 52 of the respondents 
are located in Sadra new city (37.1%), and the work places of 
88 of them are not located in Sadra new city (62.9%).  

 

Table IV: Frequency and percentage of respondents by their 
location of work place: 

Work Place 

Frequency 

Percentage 

Work Place is 
located in Sadra 
new city. 

52 

37.1 

Work Place is not 
located in Sadra 
new city. 

88 62.9 

Total 

140 

100 

 

VIII-I-IV: Descriptive study of the statistical sample based on 
their reasons to choose residential location: 

Table V shows the frequency and percentage of 

respondents based on their reasons to choose the residential 
location. The data in the table below, indicates that the reason 
of 30 respondents has been the low price of land and housing 
to buy or rent (21.4%), the reason of 25 of them has been the 
closeness of Sadra new city’s location to their work place 
(17.9%), the reason of 10 of them has been Having 
appropriate urban facilities (7.1%), and for 75 of them, having 
clean air, has been the reason to choose Sadra new city as 
their residential location (53.6%).  

 

Table V: Frequency and percentage of respondents by their 
reasons to choose Sadra new city as residential location: 
Reason to Choose 
Sadra New City 

Frequency Percentage 

low price of land 
and housing to 
buy or rent 

30 

21.4 

the closeness to 
work place 

25 17.9 

Having urban 
facilities 

10 

7.1 

Clean Air 

75 53.6 

Total 

140 

100 

  
VIII-I-V: Descriptive study of the statistical sample based on 
the causes of dissatisfaction among the citizens living in 
Sadra: 

Table VI shows the frequency and percentage of 

respondents based on the causes of dissatisfaction among the 
citizens living in Sadra new city. The data in the table below, 
implies that 12 respondents are dissatisfied with living in 
Sadra new city according to the problems of roads’ asphalts 
(8.6%), 12 of them, due to the problem of insecurity (8.6%), 
39  of them because of the problems of public transportation 
system (27.9%), 17 respondents according to lack of 
communication methods (12.1%), 11 of them because of lack 
of green spaces (7.8%), 30 of them due to the high expense of 
housing (21.4%), 12 respondents because of lack of 
recreational facilities (8.6%), 2 of them, because of the 
shortage of State resources (1.4%), and 5 of them, due to 
shortage of health facilities (3.6%).  

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Table VI: Causes of Dissatisfaction: 
Dissatisfaction 
Factors 

Frequency Percentage 

Roads’ asphalts 

12 

8.6 

Insecurity 

12 8.6 

Public 
transportation 
system 

39 

27.9 

Communication 
methods 

17 12.1 

Green spaces 

11 

7.8 

High expense of 
land & housing 

30 21.4 

Recreational 
facilities 

12 

8.6 

State resources 

2 1.4 

Health facilities 

3.6 

Total 

140 100 

 
VIII-I-VI: Descriptive study of the statistical sample based on 
the rate of satisfaction of available services: 
In this section 11 components have been reviewed and 
evaluated:  
 
 
 
Table VII: Sstatistics of satisfaction components: 
 

 Numbe

Average Median 

Standard 
deviation 

Cut-off 
point 
 

Minimum Maximum 

Performance of  agencies 
and organizations 

140 

2.7221 

2.6 

0.65965 

2.6 

Public transportation 
system 

140 1.997 

2.1429 

0.61955  2.14 

3.57 

Social security and safety of 
the paths 

140 

2.2632 

2.3333 

0.74042 

3.33 

Health and medical centers 

140 2.1474  2.5 0.72153  2.5 

Educational centers 

140 

2.9 

0.49787 

Sport Centers 

140 2.8263  3  0.49341 

1.5 

3.5 

Recreational and Tourism 
centers 

140 

2.9211 

2.5 

1.09718 

2.5 

Shopping and commercial 
centers 

140 2.6263  3  1.0105 

Municipality 

140 

2.44 

1.04187 

Weather 

140 3.34  4  1.137 

Municipal facilities 

140 

2.3474 

2.5 

1.561 

2.5 

4.5 

 
The averages calculated for all components including 
transportation, social security, health centers, training centers, 
sports, weather and amenities, is lower than the expected 
mean (cutoff point). It is worth noting that the less the average 
of these numbers is, means that the less the amount of each of 
these components is. In addition to the above, among all the 
components, the lowest average belongs to the elements of 
urban facilities and the highest average belongs to the 
weather. 

 

VIII-I-VII: Descriptive study of the statistical sample based on 
The Residents’ Intention to continue to reside in Sadra new 
city:  
Table VIII shows the frequency and percentage of 
respondents based on their Intention to continue to reside in 
Sadra new city. The data in the table below, implies that 37 of 
the respondents have the intention to continue their residence 
in Sadra new city (26.4%), and 103 of them don’t (73.6%).  
 

Table VIII: Frequency and percentage of respondents by their 
Intention to continue to reside in Sadra new city: 
Intention to 
Continue 
Residence 

Frequency Percentage 

Yes 

37 

26.4 

No 

103 73.6 

Total 

140 

100 

 

 
VIII-I-VII: Descriptive study of the statistical sample based on 
 
The influence of the shortage of facilities and equipment on 
the decision to exit Sadra new city: Table IX shows the  
 
Frequency and percentage of respondents based on their 
intention to leave Sarda new city. The data in the table below, 
indicates that among the percentage of 73.6% who intend to 
leave Sadra new city, 97 people State that their reason to make 
such a decision is the shortage of municipal facilities and 

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equipment (69.3%), and 43 of them say that the shortage of 
facilities and equipment has not had any impact on their 
decision making (30.7%).  
 
Table IX: Frequency and percentage of respondents by exiting 
Sadra according to shortage of municipal facilities and 
equipments: 
The influence of the shortage 
of facilities and equipment on 
the decision to exit Sadra new 
city 

Frequenc

Percentage 

The reason of exiting has 
been the shortage of facilities. 

97 

69.3 

The reason of exiting has not 
been the shortage of facilities. 

43 30.7 

Total 

140 

100 

 

IX: RESEARCH FINDINGS: 

 
FIRST HYPOTHESIS: It seems that Sadra new city fails to 
have qualities of a successful new city (self-sufficiency, 
independence and sustainability). In studies to answer the first 
hypothesis, The results obtained from sample surveys and 
statistical studies are as follows (according to the fact that in 
this research the indicators to assess the success of a new city 
are considered as having the characteristics of self-sufficiency, 
independence and sustainability and by taking the criteria 
referred to above indicators into account) :  
 
By assessing The criteria of an efficient transportation 
network, considering the results of statistical surveys, this 
outcome was obtained that Sadra doesn’t have a continuous 
network of inter and intra- urban public transport system; and 
its residents mainly use their personal motor vehicles in their 
daily activities inside and outside the city this item is 
inconsistent with the principles of sustainable urbanization 
from the environmental zone of it. Most of the passages do not 
have the proper flooring and lighting and necessary measures 
for the safety of the pedestrian routes have not been devised.  
By evaluating the criteria of appropriate facilities, amenities 
and utilities, considering the results of statistical surveys it 
was concluded that the city faces a very high shortage of 
medical facilities. Commercial centers are not suitable in 
quality and quantity, the residents have to travel to Shiraz for 
their healthcare, shopping, etc.  
 
In evaluation of the environmental quality standards, it can be 
noted that the City Gardens of Sadra, are considered as a form 
of the city’s identity, and contribute to the restoration of 
natural systems. But unfortunately, the lack of green space 
right in the city center and neighborhoods, improper disposal 
of sewage and waste disposal systems, are a big threat to the 
environmental aspects of the city. Considering the prevailing 
winds, industrial and workshop applications have been 

localized in a place about 200 hectares in the southwest part of 
the city and adjacent to the second entrance of Sadra; from the 
aspect mentioned, it can be said that residents don’t face the 
problems caused by incompatible land uses (industrial 
pollution, etc.). Also, according to the statistical information 
obtained, residents are dissatisfied with transportation 
networks, infrastructure, facilities and utilities. Finally, it is 
concluded that Sadra new city fails to meet the needs of its 
residents, and to meet their daily needs, they have to make 
pendulum migration to Shiraz. And according to the lack of 
inter-urban public transport, it adds to the traffic problems of 
Shiraz. By the obtained results, the first hypothesis is 
confirmed and Sadra new city fails to have qualities of a 
successful new city (self-sufficiency, independence and 
sustainability).  
 
SECOND HYPOTHESIS: It seems that Sadra new city, 
Failed to be a great success in realizing the goals for which it 
has been designed. According to the population absorbed 
(Projected population in 2012 has been 132,000 but according 
to the last census, the crowd of this year has been 40,000), it 
can be concluded that the purpose of stabilizing the 
concentration of population of functional areas, and attracting 
the crowd overflow from metropolitan areas is not fulfilled. 
Considering the data obtained, the employment locations of 
the majority of the residents of Sadra, are out of this new city. 
Thus, Sadra new city, is also low in terms of employment

 

and 

accordingly, Sadra new city can be called a residential city.  
According to the results of the first hypothesis, establishment 
of an independent and self-sustaining city that has been a goal 
of Sadra new city’s construction has not been realized either.  
Considering the facts and evidence and public dissatisfaction 
with the level of service, purposes as compensation for 
deficiencies in services - welfare performances in urban areas, 
and construction of commercial centers with local 
performance has neither been implemented. Creating jobs in 
various sectors and reduction of unemployment and thus 
economic mobility in the urban area, has been among other 
goals of the city; meanwhile, 88 percent of the population 
work outside Sadra (mostly in Shiraz), this suggests Sadra’s 
lack of success in achieving this goal. According to the 
surveys done and the existing evidence (reviewed in Chapter 
3), and with respect to the goals outlined in the 
Comprehensive Plan, the sole purpose of creating centers of 
higher education in regional and city level has been achieved 
and has failed to achieve other anticipated goals. Thus, the 
second hypothesis is also proven. 
 
THIRD HYPOTHESIS: 
It seems that Sadra’s residents are 
not satisfied with living in this city, and there is a direct 
relationship between the length of stay and residents’ 
satisfaction of urban facilities and equipment. When talking 
about a new city’s planning and urban design, in comparison 
with the existing cities, we expect achieving higher standards 
in the selection of transportation systems, facilities, utilities 

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

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and urban infrastructure. Citizens of the new city, who have 
moved their residence from the metropolitan area or a small 
town around, to a new city, naturally, in comparison with their 
previous settlements in the field of housing and urban services 
generally have higher expectations. It is not enough to make 
the new cities habitable with the announcement of the plans 
and objectives but their being implemented; but also being 
able to keep the residents and meet their needs is absolutely 
important. Therefore, surveying the residents' satisfaction can 
indicate many of the problems in these areas. To test this 
hypothesis, using data obtained from the questionnaires 
associated with urban functions, we have measured the 
residents’ satisfaction and their willingness to stay in Sadra 
new city.  
1: It seems that people are poorly satisfied with the 
performance of existing agencies and organizations in Sadra 
new city. Providing the fact that the amount of it to be 
meaningful is 0.000 and this amount is lower than 0.05, the 
null hypothesis is rejected so the public satisfaction with the 
performance of existing agencies and organizations in the city 
is down.  
2: It seems that the satisfaction rate of transport in Sadra new 
city is down. Providing the fact that the amount of it to be 
meaningful is 0.000 and this amount is lower than 0.05, the 
null hypothesis is rejected so the satisfaction rate of transport 
in Sadra new city is down.  
3: It seems that the residents’ satisfaction of social security 
and safety in ways is down in Sadra new city. Providing the 
fact that the amount of it to be meaningful is 0.000 and this 
amount is lower than 0.05, the null hypothesis is rejected so 
the residents’ satisfaction of social security and safety in ways 
is down in Sadra new city.  
4: It seems that people’s satisfaction of the health centers in 
Sadra new city is low. Providing the fact that the amount of it 
to be meaningful is 0.000 and this amount is lower than 0.05, 
the null hypothesis is rejected so people’s satisfaction of the 
health centers in Sadra new city is low. 
5: It seems that people’s satisfaction of educational centers in 
Sadra is low. Providing the fact that the amount of it to be 
meaningful is 0.000 and this amount is lower than 0.05, the 
null hypothesis is rejected so people’s satisfaction of 
educational centers in Sadra is low. 
6: It seems that people’s satisfaction of the sport centers in 
Sadra new city is low. Providing the fact that the amount of it 
to be meaningful is 0.000 and this amount is lower than 0.05, 
the null hypothesis is rejected so people’s satisfaction of the 
sport centers in Sadra new city is low.  
7: It seems that people’s satisfaction of the recreational and 
tourism centers in Sadra new city is low. Providing the fact 
that the amount of it to be meaningful is 0.000 and this 
amount is lower than 0.05, the null hypothesis is rejected so 
people’s satisfaction of the recreational and tourism centers in 
Sadra new city is low. 
8: It seems that people’s satisfaction of the shopping and 
commercial centers in Sadra new city is low. Providing the 
fact that the amount of it to be meaningful is 0.000 and this 

amount is lower than 0.05, the null hypothesis is rejected so 
people’s satisfaction of the shopping and commercial centers 
in Sadra new city is low.  
9: It seems that people’s satisfaction of the municipality is low 
in Sadra city. Providing the fact that the amount of it to be 
meaningful is 0.000 and this amount is lower than 0.05, the 
null hypothesis is rejected so people’s satisfaction of the 
municipality is low in Sadra city. 
10: It seems that people’s satisfaction of the weather is low in 
Sadra city. Providing the fact that the amount of it to be 
meaningful is 0.6 and this amount is more than 0.05, therefore  
The null hypothesis is accepted then the residents’ satisfaction 
of the weather in Sadra new city is not down.  
11: It seems that people’s satisfaction of the municipal 
facilities is low in Sadra city. Providing the fact that the 
amount of it to be meaningful is 0.000 and this amount is 
lower than 0.05, the null hypothesis is rejected so people’s 
satisfaction of the municipal facilities is low in Sadra city.  
12 There is a meaningful relationship between the duration of 
residence and the residents’ satisfaction rate of urban facilities 
and equipment. According to the fact that the amount of sig 
obtained for the level of meaningfulness of 0.05, with a 
confidence level of 95% is 000/0 whose amount is less than 
0.05, so H0, Indicating a lack of relationship is rejected and 
H1 which indicates the existance of a meaningful relationship 
is confirmed. In other words, there exists a meaningful 
relationship between the duration of residence and the 
residents’ satisfaction rate of urban facilities and equipment. 
Also according to the results of the questionnaire, 57.9% of 
the population have 3 to 7 years of residence in this city, and 
21.4% of the population, have mentioned their main reason 
for this residence as the low expenses of land and housing to 
buy or rent, 53.6% of the respondents have mentioned clean 
air, and 17.9% of them have mentioned the proximity of their 
residence and work places. Moreover, 73.6% of the residents 
don’t mean to continue their stay in Sadra new city, and 
69.3% of them believe that the shortage of municipal facilities 
and equipment has an influence on their decision to leave the 
new city; Therefore, we can conclude that the majority of 
Sadra’s residents have come to this city to reside, due to its 
lower expenses of land and housing for rent or buy in 
comparison to Shiraz. And after having resided there for a 
short time, which is usually 3 to 7 years, they are discouraged 
from staying in the city, due to the lack of satisfactory urban 
facilities and equipment. Thus, only cheap land and housing 
expenses in Sadra new city, is not powerful enough to satisfy 
the families to lead to their continued residence in the city; 
But they also demand urban facilities, transportation systems, 
public services and amenities which are suitable for the new 
city.  
Finally we can say that the third hypothesis is also proven.  
 
 
 
 
 

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
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X: SWOT ANALYSIS: 

 

 

Indicator 

Potency 

Weakness 

Opportunity 

Threaten 

Physical 

- Existence of wide 

pathways 

- Usage of durable 

materials in new 

construction 

- Suitability of the 

prices of urban lands 

and properties 

- Lack of incompatible 

land uses 

- Creation of research 

centers and universities 

in cross-regional levels 
- Building hospitals for 

burns and organ 

transplant for  giving 

services in region and 

trans-regional levels 

- Existence of suitable  

potentials and contexts 

for tourism and 

recreational projects 

- Lack of lighting in 

most of the streets and 

sidewalks 

- Poor quality of road 

asphalts and pavement 

floorings 

- Lack of a hierarchy of 

access spaces 

- Lack of continuity of 

street network 

- Lack of urban furniture 

- Interference the foot 

and vehicles’ movement 

flows 

- Lack of  enough 

administrative functions 

required by citizens and 

businesses 

- The lack of a 

continuous network of 

public inter and intra-

urban transport 

- Lack of commercial 

centers in the 

surrounding streets and 

neighborhoods 

- Lack of enough  public 

spaces such as mosques 

- Lack of enough 

medical care centers 

- Lack of  enough 

educational centers 

- Lack of  enough 

recreational centers 

- Lack of neighborhood 

centers 

- Deficiency in service 

levels in the city 

- Lack of cemetery 

- existence of  vacant 

empty lands 

- Lack of proper urban 

spaces 

- Lack of proper 

elements and urban view 

- Inadequacy of urban 

facilities and 

accommodation services 

- Inappropriate type of 

urban landscape 

- Potential to provide the 

required services in 

terms of the city’s 

capacity 

- Possibility to increase 

the height of buildings, 

providing the integration 

of pieces of land and 

prevent the horizontal 

expansion 

- Potential of the 

surrounding pathways to 

adopt with  urban 

services and inter-urban 

ones 

- Sadra’s local position 

in terms of regional and 

trans-regional services 

- Proximity to the 

industrial and economic 

hub of the country 

- Approval of the 

projects of  building 

sports and entertainment 

complexes, in order to 

provide services in 
regional and trans-

regional levels 

- High cost of urban 

infrastructure and facilities 

due to physical 

discontinuities in the urban 

space. 

- Insufficiency of 

Urban infrastructure to 

accommodate with the 

volume of “MEHR 

RESIDENCE” allocated to 

the city. 

-  Increasing traffic and 

pendulum migrations to 

Shiraz for everyday needs, 

as a result of lack of 

therapeutic, administrative, 

educational and commercial 

centers. 

- Being a residential city 

- Expensive shops and 

autonomy of business units, 

resulting from a lack of the  

unions in the city, to 

monitor them 

- Stopping of the approved 

plans to build facilities and 

leisure centers 

- Increased land speculation 

and gradual high prices of  

land and housing 

 

 
 

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 15(4) [Supplementary Part V], September 2014, pp. 

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Indicator 

Potency 

Weakness 

Opportunity 

Threaten 

Socio – 
cultural 

- Young age structure 

of the population 

 

- Shortage of defined  

public neighborhood 

spaces 

- Public discontent with 

the level of services 

- The majority of 

residents’ being 

employed outside the 

Sadra new city 

- Dissatisfaction of 

residents with living in 

the city 

- The lack of security in 

the city according to 

absence of police court 

- Potential to revive  

cultural and civic centers 

- Possibility to creation 

of employment for 

young people living in 

the city.  

- existence of good 

contexts to build tourist 

attraction centers and 

employment in this 

industry 

Lack of a sense of identity 

and belonging to the city in 

residents 

- Afghan and national 
construction workers’ 

tendency to reside in the city 

due tocheaper property 

prices 

- Increase in crime in the 

city 

- Cultural conflicts as a 

result of migration from 

villages and cities around 

- Lack of stability in 

population, most of which 

tend to transfer their 

residence from Sadra to 

Shiraz 

- Lack of willingness to 

invest in the city in public 

and private sector 

Environmenta

- Building Garden 

Cities as an  identity 

document for the city 

- Localization and 

positioning the new 

city according to 

appropriate weather 

type which is suitable 

for any kind of 

construction 

 

- Lack of green space 

and children's play areas 

in neighborhoods 

- The dependence of 

residents on using their 

personal cars 

- Lack of Sadra sewage 

system 

-Farmers’ usage of 

wastewater for irrigation 

and fertilizing their fields 

by pumping systems 

-  Local garbage dump 

and burn near Jollab 

canyon 

- Lack of standards for 

sustainable urbanization 

-  The willingness of 

people to use public 

transportation system if 

it is improved 

- People’s desire to walk 

providing the safety of 

the passages 

- existence of vacant 

lands with their defined 

usage as green spaces 

 
 

- Shortage in capitation for 
green spaces 
- Air and sound pollution in 
the streets because the 
majority of residents using 
their own vehicles 
- Existence of  the sewage 
pits and ponds surrounding 
residential areas and the 
possibility of disease 
outbreaks in summer 
- The loss of environmental 
quality as a result of 
improper disposal of 
garbage and sewage 
-  Increase in traffic load and 
air pollution resulting from 
city residents’ daily trips to 
Shiraz Metropolis 

 

XI: THE RESEARCH RESULTS: 
Our findings indicate that a significant number of households 
living in Sadra new city originate from a crowd overflow of 
Shiraz’ population. Among the most important reasons for 
households’ migration, to Sadra new city, we can name 
cheaper land and housing prices, which are gradually 
increasing due to reasons such as lack of authorities’ 
supervision on estate sales

 

which is one of the grievances of 

the residents of this city. 

Considering the obtained data, the average age in the city is 
between 20-40 years, 88% of whose works are located outside 
the Sadra and are majorly positioned in Shiraz. In addition, 
due to the lack of independence and accommodation of the 
needs of its residents, the city always has very close 
relationships with Shiraz metropolis.

 

So Sadra new city’s 

residents' satisfaction level is extremely low, while 73.6% of 
them don’t tend to have permanent residence in the city, and 
69.3% of them believe the lack of facilities and equipment in 
the city to be effective on their decision to leave the new city.