A critical review of reports of endogenous
psychedelic N, N-dimethyltryptamines in
humans: 1955

–2010

Steven A. Barker,

a

* Ethan H. McIlhenny

a

and Rick Strassman

b

Three indole alkaloids that possess differing degrees of psychotropic/psychedelic activity have been reported as endogenous
substances in humans; N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 5-hydroxy-DMT (bufotenine, HDMT), and 5-methoxy-DMT (MDMT). We
have undertaken a critical review of 69 published studies reporting the detection or detection and quantitation of these
compounds in human body

fluids. In reviewing this literature, we address the methods applied and the criteria used in the

determination of the presence of DMT, MDMT, and HDMT. The review provides a historical perspective of the research
conducted from 1955 to 2010, summarizing the

findings for the individual compounds in blood, urine, and/or cerebrospinal

fluid. A critique of the data is offered that addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the methods and approaches to date.
The review also discusses the shortcomings of the existing data in light of more recent

findings and how these may be

overcome. Suggestions for the future directions of endogenous psychedelics research are offered. Copyright © 2012 John
Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Keywords: dimethyltryptamine; psychedelic; endogenous

Introduction

Three indole alkaloids that possess differing degrees of psychotropic/
psychedelic activity have been reported as endogenous
substances in humans. These compounds, all metabolites of
tryptophan, are N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT, 1, Figure 1),
5-hydroxy-DMT (bufotenine, HDMT, 2), and 5-methoxy-DMT
(MDMT, 3). Their presence has been reported in human
cerebrospinal

fluid (CSF), urine, and/or blood utilizing either

paper and/or thin layer chromatography (TLC), direct ultravio-
let (UV) or

fluorescence (Fl) measurements, gas chromatog-

raphy (GC) using various sensors (nitrogen-phosphorous
detector

(NPD);

electron

capture

detector

(ECD);

mass

spectrometry

detector

(MSD)),

high-performance

liquid

chromatography (HPLC) using UV and/or Fl detection, HPLC-
radioimmunoassay,

HPLC-electrochemical

detection,

and

liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/
MS) (Tables 1

–3, references

[1

–69]

). Indeed, the review of the

55-year history of the development of methodology for the analysis
of these compounds shows how closely it has paralleled the evolu-
tion of analytical technology itself, with each researcher seeking
more speci

fic and sensitive techniques.

A renewed interest in these compounds as naturally

occurring substances in humans has occurred, in part, due
to DMT

’s recent characterization as an endogenous substrate

for the ubiquitous sigma 1 receptor

[70]

and for its possible

action at trace amine receptors.

[71]

In both cases, the roles

of DMT and the receptors themselves in regulating some
aspect(s) of human physiology are poorly understood. Given
their known psychedelic effects, there remains an interest in
their possible role in naturally occurring altered states of
consciousness, such as psychosis, dreams, creativity and imag-
ination,

religious

phenomena,

and

even

near-death

experiences.

[72]

Although the vast majority of research into

the presence of these compounds sought their role in mental
illness, no de

finitive conclusions yet exist. A determination of

the role of these compounds in humans awaits further
research, much of which awaits the development of adequate
analytical methodology.

Interest in DMT has also increased because of the

burgeoning use and popularity of the religious sacrament aya-
huasca which contains DMT and several harmala alkaloids,
which serve to make DMT orally active. Ayahuasca tourism
in South America and the establishment of syncretic churches
using ayahuasca as a sacrament

[73,74]

have stimulated research

into the mechanisms of its effects and its possible use as a
therapeutic.

[75]

The resumption of human research character-

izing DMT

’s psychopharmacology

[76

–84]

and the ongoing use

of pure DMT for therapeutic and recreational purposes have
also focused interest on this and related psychedelics. The
dimethylated-tryptamines (DMTs) increasing visibility within
medical, non-medical, religious and/or recreational contexts

[75]

reinforce the importance of determining their endogenous
role.

This review addresses several fundamental issues regarding

these three endogenous psychedelics. For example, are DMT,

* Correspondence to: Steven A. Barker, Department of Comparative Biomedical

Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton
Rouge, LA 70806, USA. E-mail: sbarker@vetmed.lsu.edu

a School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA,

USA

b School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, and Cottonwood

Research Foundation, Taos, New Mexico, USA

Drug Test. Analysis (2012)

Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Review

Drug Testing
and Analysis

Received: 7 December 2011

Revised: 3 January 2012

Accepted: 3 January 2012

Published online in Wiley Online Library

(wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI 10.1002/dta.422

HDMT, and/or MDMT truly present in humans?

[85]

Early

criticisms

of

reports

of

endogenous

psychedelics

were

directed at the fact that rather non-speci

fic chemical tests

were being applied, double-blind analyses were not always
being performed, and dietary or medication sources were
not always adequately ruled out as responsible for the identi-
fications.

[2,12]

Further, it was claimed that possible artifacts

produced from the extraction solvents and conditions of
analysis may have led to misidenti

fication of the DMTs in

some early studies

[20]

and, more recently, that the use of

halogenated solvents in the analysis may have affected their
detection.

[86]

Biological factors that may have affected the

detectabilty of these compounds in the periphery were also
acknowledged, which included their rapid metabolism.

[87,88]

Finally, there have been concerns that the studies searching
for their presence and an association with speci

fic clinical

disorders have failed to understand and fully characterize
their metabolism or monitor their metabolites.

[88

–91]

To address these issues, we have undertaken a critical

review of 69 published studies reporting the detection or
detection and quantitation of these compounds in human
body

fluids. In reviewing this literature, we address the

methods applied and the criteria used in the determination
of the presence of DMT, MDMT, and HDMT. We begin with
the original report of the presence of bufotenin (HDMT) in
human urine in 1955 using paper chromatography

[1]

and

end with the most recent report concerning the presence of
bufotenin (HDMT) in human urine using LC-MS/MS.

[69]

We will be addressing the following questions: How valid

were early studies regarding the presence and/or quantities
of these compounds in human cerebrospinal

fluid (CSF),

blood and/or urine? Were the analytical methodologies
and the identi

fication criteria adequate? Are they truly there?

When present, are they of dietary origin? When and where in
the human body are they produced? Can we in

fluence their

detection in biological samples by pharmacologically inhibit-
ing their metabolism by monoamine oxidase (MAO)? How
does turnover rate and metabolism of these substances
in

fluence their detectabilty? Have the precursors and/or meta-

bolites of these compounds been adequately monitored? Is

monitoring these compounds in biological samples such as
CSF, blood and/or urine the best, or even most practical
way to determine their role? What will such data tell us about
the function of these compounds? Where does the research
on endogenous psychedelics go from here?

Historical perspective

The search for endogenous psychedelics soon followed
the discovery of the psychedelic effects of mescaline and
lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in humans. Observations of
these effects gave rise to hypotheses that they were related
to the symptomology observed in a heterogeneous group of
mental disorders, especially psychoses

– either mania or

schizophrenia.

[92]

It was proposed that schizophrenics may

biochemically produce similar compounds as

‘schizotoxins’.

[93]

A search for mescaline-like compounds proved unreward-
ing,

[94]

but in studies examining urine samples for serotonin-

like compounds, researchers reported in 1955

[1]

and 1956,

[2]

the presence of 5-hydroxy-N,N-DMT (HDMT, bufotenin) in
humans. Subsequently, Axelrod

[95]

reported the presence of

an enzyme capable of N-methylating indole-ethylamines and
producing DMTs. Following these reports, attention began to
focus in earnest on the possible endogenous formation of
the indole-ethylamine psychedelics. During the next 50 years,
many studies reported

finding DMT, HDMT, and/or MDMT in

human CSF, urine, and/or blood. Most of these studies sought
differences

in

levels

between

controls

and

psychiatric,

especially psychotic, patients. Some studies claimed higher
concentrations and signi

ficant differences in levels between

the groups; some reported not

finding the compounds at all

in either patients or controls.

It is of interest to note that in its original conception, the

schizotoxin hypothesis proposed that the formation of an
endogenous psychedelic schizotoxin would be an aberration
of metabolism and that

‘normals’ would not form such

compounds.

[92]

However,

numerous studies subsequently

reported

finding one or more of these compounds in controls

Figure 1. Structures of the compounds discussed.

S. A. Barker, E. H. McIlhenny and R. Strassman

Drug Testing
and Analysis

wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/dta

Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Drug Test. Analysis (2012)

Table

1.

Revie

w

o

f

6

9

studies

reg

arding

endo

genou

s

psych

edelics

show

ing

the

year,

reference,

com

poun

ds

analyze

d,

type

of

sam

ple

and

metho

d

o

f

extrac

tion.

Ac

ronyms

and

abb

reviations;

IV,

intr

a-

venous;

H

NMT,

5-hyd

roxy-N-meth

yltryptamin

e;

ex

t,

extr

action;

vol,

volum

e;

w/wo,

wi

th

or

witho

ut;

evap

,

evap

orate;

ppt,

pre

cipitate;

sat.,

sat

ur

ated;

TLC

,

thin-la

yer

chro

matog

raphy;

cent

,

centrifuge

;

TFAA

,

tr

ifl

uoro-

acetic

anhydr

ide;

SPE,

solid

-phase

extrac

tion;

LC,

liq

uid

chroma

tography.

Year

Aut

hor

Comp

ound

s

A

nalyzed

Collect

ion

Extraction

Met

hod

1955

Bumpu

s

and

Pag

e

[1]

HNMT

,

HDMT

24-ho

ur

urine

10

ml

portion

s,

HCl;

urea

se

Evap,

Ace

tone,

evap

,

M

eOH,

ev

ap,

AlO3

column

1956

Rodni

ght

[2]

HNMT

,

HDMT

24-ho

ur

urine;

75

–120

ml

extr

acted

Z

e

o

-K

ar

b

2

2

6

re

si

n

,E

tO

H

/a

ce

to

n

e

p

p

t,

e

va

p

1961

Fischer

et

al

.

[3]

HDMT

1

L

of

urine

NaHC

O3

sat.,

but

anol,

evap

,

aceton

e

1961

Fischer

et

al

.

[4]

HDMT

1

L

of

urine

NaOH

pH

9,

butano

l,

evap,

aceto

ne

1961

Feldst

ein

et

al

.

[5]

HDMT

8

hour

urines;

IV/or

al

14

C

seroton

in

(130

m

g)

not

descr

ibed

1962

Perry

et

al

.

[6]

HDMT

,

conjuga

te

24-36

hour

urine;

ext

vo

l

5

0

0

mg

creat

inine;

Amb

erlite

CG-12

0,

CG-50;

eth

anol-ace

tone

ppt

w/wo

hy

drolysis

1963

Brune

et

al

.

[7]

HDMT

;

DMT

24

hour

urine

pH

10,

ethyl

ether

ex

t,

evap

,

aceton

e

1963

Perry

[8]

HDMT

;

DMT

24

or

48

hour

urin

e;

ext

vol

5

0

0

m

g

cre

atinine

Amb

erlite

CG-12

0,

CG-50;

eth

anol-ace

tone

ppt

1963

Sprince

et

al

.

[9]

DMT,

H

DMT

24

hour

urine

pH

10,

ethyl

ether

-butanon

e

ext,

ev

ap,

aceto

ne

1963

Perry

and

Sch

roeder

[10]

HDMT

24-36

hour

urine;

ext

vo

l

250

–35

0

m

g

creat

inine

Amb

erlite

CG-12

0,

CG-50;

eth

anol-ace

tone

ppt

1965

Franzen

and

Gro

ss

[11]

DMT,

H

DMT

blood

and

urine

(24

hour

)

Extensiv

e

m

u

lti-step

ex

traction,

ppt

and

cle

an-up

1965

Siegel

[12]

HDMT

fresh

ur

ine,

10

0

m

l

p

H

10,

ethyl

ether

ex

t,

evap

,

aceton

e

1965

Nishi

mura

and

Gjessing

[13]

HDMT

fresh

ur

ine

vol

500

–1,000

m

g

cre

atinine

Dowex

50,

Amb

erlite

CG

5

0

,

1965

Takes

ada

et

al

.

[14]

HDMT

24

hour

urine

Ext,

Dowe

x

5

0

column,

alumi

na

colu

mn

1966

Rung

e

et

al

.

[15]

HDMT

1

L

of

urine

pH

8–

9

,

but

anol

ext,

ace

tone

ppt,

aceto

ne

1966

Perry

et

al

.

[16]

DMT,

H

DMT

48

hour

urine

Dowex

50

W,

Amber

lite

CG-50

;

H

Cl

hy

drolysis

1966

Heller

[17]

HDMT

1

L

of

urine

NaHC

O3

sat.,

but

anol,

evap

,

aceton

e

1967

Fischer

and

Spa

tz

[18]

HDMT

100

ml

fres

h

urine

NaC

O3,

ether

ex

t,

evap

,

aceton

e

1967

Kakim

oto

et

al

.

[19]

DMT,

H

DMT

24

hour

urine;

vol

600

mg

creatinine

analyze

d

Ext,

Dowe

x

5

0

column,

alumi

na

colu

mn

1967

Tanimuk

ai

[20]

H

N

M

T

,H

D

M

T,

N

M

T

,D

M

T

,M

D

M

T

24

hour

urine;

1/4th

used

in

assay

Dowex

50

W

X2;

w/wo

HCl

hydro

lysis

1967

Tanimuk

ai

et

al

.

[21]

HDMT

24

hour

urine;1/

3

rd

u

se

d

in

assay

catio

n

exchange

resin;

w/wo

HCL

hydro

lysis

1967

Tanimuk

ai

et

al

.

[22]

HDMT

24

hour

urine;

1/4th

used

in

assay

Dowex

50

W

X2;

HCl

hydrolysis

1967

Aceba

l

and

Spatz

[23]

HDMT

100

ml

urin

e

NaC

O3,

ether

ex

t,

evap

,

aceton

e

1968

Faurbye

and

Pind

[24]

HDMT

24

hour

urine,

hydro

lyzed

at

pH1

.6

column

chro

mato

graphy,

sublimat

ion,

pap

er/TLC

1969

Sireix

and

M

arini

[25]

HDMT

100

ml

fres

h

urine

NaC

O3,

ether

ex

t,

evap

,

aceton

e

1969

Spatz

et

al

.

[26]

HDMT

50

ml

fresh

ur

ine;

1

0

0

m

l

fresh

ur

ine

p

H

1

0

N

aO

H

,e

th

yl

ac

e

ta

te

;d

ia

zo

-r

e

ag

e

n

t

o

r

T

LC

1970

Fischer

and

Spa

tz

[27]

HDMT

50

ml

fresh

ur

ine;

aci

d

h

y

drolysis

p

H

1

0

NaOH,

eth

yl

ace

tate;

diazo

-reagent

and

TLC

1970

Saavedr

a

and

Udabe

[28]

HDMT

50

ml

fresh

ur

ine;

aci

d

h

y

drolysis

p

H

1

0

NaOH,

eth

yl

ace

tate;

diazo

-reagent

and

TLC

1970

Tanimuk

ai

et

al

.

[29]

HNMT

,

HDMT

,

DMT,

M

DMT

24

hour

urine;

1/4th

used

in

assay

Dowex

50

W

X2;

HCl

hydrolysis

1970

Heller

et

al

.

[30]

DMT,

M

DMT,

H

DMT

fasting

blo

od,

ox

alate

tu

be;

aci

d

h

y

drolyzed

D

o

w

e

x

5

0

;H

C

le

xt

a

n

d

e

th

yl

a

ce

ta

te

a

t

p

H

1

0

.2

1971

Narsimh

achari

et

al

.

[31]

DMT,

M

DMT,

H

DMT

24

hour

urine;

75%

used

in

assay

D

o

w

e

x

5

0

;H

C

le

xt

a

n

d

e

th

yl

a

ce

ta

te

a

t

p

H

1

0

.2

1971

Naras

imhacha

ri

et

al

.

[32]

NMT,

DMT,

MDMT

fasting

blo

od,

ox

alate

tu

be

D

o

w

e

x

5

0

;H

C

le

xt

an

d

e

th

yl

ac

e

ta

te

at

p

H

1

0

.2

1971

Fischer

et

al

.

[33]

HDMT

,

glucuro

nide

50

ml

morning

urine;

w/wo

glucu

ronida

se

Liquid-Liqui

d

e

xt

;

w/wo

glucu

roni

dase

treatment

1972

Himwi

ch

et

al

.

[34]

HDMT

,

DMT,

M

DMT

24

hour

urine

D

o

w

e

x

5

0

;H

C

le

xt

a

n

d

e

th

yl

a

ce

ta

te

a

t

p

H

1

0

.2

1972

Naras

imhacha

ri

et

al

.

[35]

HDMT

,

DMT,

M

DMT

24

hour

urine

Franze

n

and

Gro

ss;

HCl

ext

ethyl

acetate

a

t

p

H

1

0.2

1973

Walk

er

et

al

.

[36]

DMT

plasma

;

DMT

sta

ble

for

60

days

at

6

degree

s

C

HCL

ext

acid

pH

with

CHCl

3,

pH

9

,

ex

t

CHCl

3,

evap

Reports of endogenous psychedelic N, N-dimethyltryptamines in humans

Drug Testing
and Analysis

Drug Test. Analysis (2012)

Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Table

1.

(Continued)

Year

Author

Comp

ound

s

Analyze

d

Collect

ion

Extraction

M

ethod

1973

Wyatt

et

al

.

[37]

DMT

plasma

HCL

ext

acid

pH

with

CHCl

3,

pH

9,

ext

CHCl

3,

evap

1973

Naras

imhacha

ri

and

Himwich

[38]

DMT,

HDMT

24-ho

ur

urine

D

o

w

e

x

5

0

;H

C

le

xt

a

n

d

e

th

yl

a

ce

ta

te

a

t

p

H

1

0

.2

1974

Lipin

ski

et

al

.

[39]

DMT

plasma

sepa

rated

by

cent

rifugation

HCL

ext

acid

pH

with

CHCl

3,

pH

9,

ext

CHCl

3,

evap

1974

Bidde

r

et

al

.

[40]

DMT

Hep

arinise

d

plas

ma

or

whole

blo

od;

2

4

hr

urine

HCL

ext

acid

pH

with

CHCl

3,

pH

9,

ext

CHCl

3,

evap

1974

Naras

imhacha

ri

et

al

.

[41]

HDMT

,

DMT,

MDMT

24

hour

urin

e

D

o

w

e

x

5

0

;H

C

le

xt

a

n

d

e

th

yl

a

ce

ta

te

a

t

p

H

1

0

.2

1975

Carpent

er

et

al

.

[42]

DMT,

HDMT

24

hour

urin

e,

90%

used

in

assay

Dowe

x

50;

HCl

ext

and

ethy

l

acetate

a

t

p

H

10.2

1975

Christian

et

al

.

[43]

DMT,

MDMT

Cerebr

ospinal

uid

Depr

oteini

zation

,

liquid-l

iquid

ex

t,

CH2Cl2

1975

Naras

imhacha

ri

and

Himwich

[44]

DMT,

HDMT

24

hour

urin

e,

80%

used

in

assay

Dowe

x

50;

HCl

ext

and

ethy

l

acetate

a

t

p

H

10.2

1976

Ang

rist

et

al

.

[45]

DMT

non-f

asting

blo

od;

hepa

rin;

1

0

ml

assayed

HCL

ext

acid

pH

with

CHCl

3,

pH

9,

ext

CHCl

3,

evap

1976

Rodni

ght

et

al

.

[46]

DMT

24-ho

ur

urine

Dowe

x

50;

HCl

ext

and

ethy

l

acetate

a

t

p

H

10.2

1976

Murra

y

and

Oon

[47]

DMT

24-ho

ur

urine

Dowe

x

50;

HCl

ext

and

ethy

l

acetate

a

t

p

H

10.2

1976

Huszka

et

al

.

[48]

HDMT

,

DMT,

MDMT

24

hour

urin

e;

1/3

rd

used

in

ass

ay

Dowe

x

5

0

W

X2;

HCl

hydrolysis

1977

Cottrell

et

al

.

[49]

HDMT

24

hour

urin

e

HCL

ext

acid

pH

with

CHCl

3,

pH

11,

ext

CHCl

3,

evap

1977

Oon

et

al

.

[50]

DMT,

NMT

24-ho

ur

urine;

50%

used;

5

0

%

co

n

ce

n

tr

a

te

d

a

n

d

e

xt

ra

ct

e

d

w

it

h

to

lu

e

n

e

DMT,

NMT

sta

ble

90

days

at

15

C

puri

ed

by

TLC,

deriva

tized

with

TFAA

1977

Oon

and

Ro

dnight

[51]

DMT,

NMT

24-ho

ur

urine;

50%

used

in

assay

50%

concen

trated

and

extrac

ted

with

to

luene

puri

ed

by

TLC,

deriva

tized

with

TFAA

1978

Rice

berg

and

Van

Vun

akis

[52]

DMT,

HDMT

,

MDMT

24

hour

urin

e;

300

ml

us

ed

in

assay

Urine

(pH

10

.5)

ext

with

CHCl

3

50

ml

who

le

blood;

plasma

Whole

blood

lysed

,

protein

ppt.

with

HClO

4

extrac

ted

twice

with

chloroform

1978

Corb

ett

et

al

.

[53]

DMT,

MDMT

Cerebr

ospinal

uid

Depr

oteini

zation

,

Liquid-Liquid

ext,

CH2Cl

2

1979

Wal

ker

et

al

.

[54]

DMT

10

ml

who

le

blood;

arterial

and

venous

HCL

ext

acid

pH

with

CHCl

3,

pH

9,

ext

CHCl

3,

evap

1979

Murra

y

et

al

.

[55]

DMT,

NMT

24-ho

ur

urine;

50%

used

in

assay

acidi

ed

with

HCl

50%

co

nce

n

trat

e

d

a

nd

extr

acted

w

it

h

to

lue

ne

puri

ed

by

TLC,

deriva

tized

with

TFAA

1979

Checkle

y

et

al

.

[56]

DMT

24

hour

urin

e;

50%

used

in

assay

acidi

ed

with

HCl

50%

co

n

centr

ated

a

n

d

e

xtra

cte

d

with

to

lue

n

e

puri

ed

by

TLC,

deriva

tized

with

TFAA

1979

Raisan

en

and

Karkka

inen

[57]

DMT,

HDMT

150

ml

mo

rning

urine

sample

s

p

H

11,

XAD

resin

,

ethyl

acetate

eluti

on,

evap,

TLC

1979

Smyth

ies

et

al

.

[58]

DMT,

MDMT

Cerebr

ospinal

uid

Depr

oteini

zation

,

liquid-l

iquid

ex

t,

CH2Cl2

1980

Checkle

y

et

al

.

[59]

DMT

Seria

l

2

4

hour

ur

ine;

longit

udin

al

study

acidi

ed

with

HCl

50%

co

n

centr

ated

a

n

d

e

xtra

cte

d

with

to

lue

n

e

puri

ed

by

TLC,

deriva

tized

with

TFAA

1983

Ueb

elhack

et

al

.

[60]

DMT,

MDMT

Cerebr

ospinal

uid

Depr

oteini

zation

,

liquid-l

iquid

ex

t,

CH2Cl2

1983

Sitar

am

et

al

.

[61]

HDMT

12

hr

sp

ecimen

s

(8

pm-8

am);

200

ml

assayed

ion

pair

ext

CHCl

3,

LC-s

ilica

column

pur

ifi

catio

n

1984

Raisan

en

et

al

.

[62]

HDMT

not

sta

ted

pH11,

XAD

re

sin,

eth

yl

acetate

elu

tion,

evap

,

TLC

1988

Karkka

inen

et

al

.

[63]

HDMT

morning

ur

ine

sam

ples

pH11,

XAD

re

sin,

eth

yl

acetate

elu

tion,

evap

,

TLC

S. A. Barker, E. H. McIlhenny and R. Strassman

Drug Testing
and Analysis

wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/dta

Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Drug Test. Analysis (2012)

Table

1.

(Co

ntinued)

Year

Aut

hor

Comp

ounds

An

alyzed

Collect

ion

Extraction

Met

hod

1992

Karkkain

en

and

Raisan

en

[64]

HDMT

individ

ual

urine

sam

ples

;

pH11,

XAD

re

sin,

ethyl

acetate

eluti

on,

evap

,

T

LC

w

/wo

nialam

ide

treatment

1995

Karkkain

en

et

al

.

[65]

HDMT

morning

ur

ine

sam

ples;

50

–1

0

0

m

l

pH11,

XAD

re

sin,

ethyl

acetate

eluti

on,

evap

,

T

LC

1995

Takeda

et

al

.

[66]

HDMT

,

HNMT

morning

ur

ine

sam

ples

centrifugation,

direct

inject

ion

of

80

m

l

o

f

urine

2001

Forsstrom

et

al

.

[67]

DMT,

M

DMT,

H

DMT,

NMT

morning

and

aftern

oon

ur

ines;

5

m

l

ass

ayed

urine

centrifuged

and

ex

t

o

n

Oasis

SPE

cartridge

2005

Karkkain

en

et

al

.

[68]

DMT,

H

DMT

urine

(5

ml),

plasma

or

seru

m

(1

ml),

stool;

urine

cent

and

ex

t

o

n

Oasis

HLB

cartr

idge;

tissues

(0.5-

1.5

g)

Prep

LC

for

blood

2010

Eman

uele

et

al

.

[69]

HDMT

random

ur

ine

sam

ples

urine

cent

and

ex

t

o

n

Oasis

HLB

cartr

idge

Table

2.

Rev

iew

of

69

stud

ies

regar

ding

endo

gen

ous

psych

edelics

sho

wing

the

year,

reference,

com

poun

ds

ana

lyzed,

dete

ction

metho

ds,

limits

of

det

ection

(L

OD

)

and

con

rmation

criteria.

Acron

yms

and

abbrev

iation

s;

HNMT

,

5-hyd

roxy-N-met

hyltryptamin

e;

TLC,

thin-la

yer

ch

romatography

;

2-D,

two

dimensio

nal;

GC-F

ID,

gas

chro

mato

graphy-

ame

ioni

zation

dete

ctor;

derive

,

der

ivative;

HFBI,

hept

a-

uoro-

butyryl-im

idazo

le;

IS,

interna

l

stand

ard;

HP

LC,

high

performance

liquid

ch

romatography;

ESI,

electro

spray

ioni

zatio

n;

MS,

ma

ss

spectrome

try;

ND,

not

dete

rmined

;R

T

,rete

ntion

time

;U

V

,ultraviolet

;

TI,

to

tal

ion;

m/z

,

m

a

ss-to-charge

rati

o;

CI,

ch

emical

ionizat

ion;

IA,

immuno

assay;

MRM

,

m

u

ltiple

reactio

n

m

o

nitoring.

Year

Aut

hor

Comp

ound

s

Analyze

d

Dete

ction

Methods

Limit

of

Detection

Con

rmation

Criter

ia

1955

Bumpu

s

and

Pag

e

[1]

H

NMT,

H

DMT

paper

chro

matog

raphy

(1

sy

stem),

colo

r

reactio

n,

bioass

ay

ND

Rf

and

colo

r

(1

sy

stem)

1956

Rodni

ght

[2]

H

NMT,

H

DMT

paper

chro

matog

raphy

(3

sy

stems),

color

react

ion,

bio

assay

>

5

m

g/

24

hour

for

HDMT

Rf

and

colo

r

(3

sy

stems)

1961

Fisc

her

et

al

.

[3]

H

DMT

paper

chro

matog

raphy

(1

sy

stem)

ND

Rf

and

colo

r

(1

sy

stem)

1961

Fisc

her

et

al

.

[4]

H

DMT

paper

chro

matog

raphy

(1

sy

stem)

ND

Rf

and

colo

r

(1

sy

stem)

1961

Feldst

ein

et

al

.

[5]

H

DMT

paper

chro

matog

raphy

and

au

to-rad

iograp

hs

ND

R

f

an

d

co

lo

r

(1

sy

st

e

m

),

ra

d

io

ac

ti

ve

sp

o

t

1962

Perry

et

al

.

[6]

H

DMT,

conj

ugate

paper

chro

matog

raphy

(2-D),

color

reactio

n

N

D

R

f

and

colo

r

(2-D)

1963

Brune

et

al

.

[7]

H

DMT;

DMT

paper

chro

matog

raphy

(2-D),

color

reactio

n

2

0

ng/ml

Rf

and

colo

r

(2-D)

1963

Perry

[8]

H

DMT;

DMT

2-D

paper

chro

mato

graphy,

colo

r

reactio

n

N

D

R

f

and

colo

r

(2-D)

1963

Spr

ince

et

al

.

[9]

DMT,

HDMT

2-D

paper

chro

mato

graphy,

colo

r

reactio

n

N

D

R

f

and

colo

r

(2-D)

1963

Perry

and

Sch

roeder

[10]

H

DMT

paper

chro

matog

raphy

(3

sy

stems)

ND

Rf

and

colo

r

(3

sy

stems)

1965

Franze

n

and

Gro

ss

[11]

DMT,

HDMT

Fluorescence

2

ng/ml

Fluorese

nce

readin

g

1965

Siege

l

[12]

H

DMT

TLC

(1

sy

stem),

colo

r

reactio

n

0.1

m

g/100

ml

Rf

and

colo

r

(1

sy

stem)

1965

Nishi

mura

and

G

jessing

[13]

H

DMT

TLC

(2-D),

color

reactio

n

N

D

R

f

and

colo

r

(2-D)

1965

Takes

ada

et

al

.

[14]

H

DMT

paper

chro

matog

raphy,

color

reactio

n

2

0

m

g/24

hour

Rf

and

colo

r

Reports of endogenous psychedelic N, N-dimethyltryptamines in humans

Drug Testing
and Analysis

Drug Test. Analysis (2012)

Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/dta

Table

2.

(Continued)

Year

Author

Co

mpound

s

An

alyzed

De

tection

Met

hods

Lim

it

of

De

tection

Con

rm

ation

Crit

eria

196

6

Run

ge

et

al

.

[15]

HDMT

paper

ch

romatograph

y,

colo

r

react

ion

ND

Rf

and

color

(2-D)

196

6

Per

ry

et

al

.

[16]

DMT,

HDMT

paper

ch

romatograph

y

(2-D)

,

colo

r

reactio

n

2

m

g/24

hr

for

DMT

and

HDMT

Rf

and

color

(2-D)

196

6

H

eller

[17]

HDMT

paper

ch

romatograph

y

(2-D)

,

colo

r

reactio

n

N

D

R

f

and

color

(2-D)

196

7

Fisc

her

and

Spatz

[18]

HDMT

paper

ch

romatograph

y

(2-D)

,

colo

r

reactio

n

N

D

R

f

and

color

(2-D)

196

7

K

a

kimoto

et

al

.

[19]

DMT,

HDMT

paper

ch

romatograph

y

(3

systems

),

color

reactio

n

1

0

m

g/24

hour

Rf

and

color

(3

systems

)

196

7

Tanim

ukai

[20]

HNMT

,

HDMT

,

NMT,

DMT,

paper

and

TLC

(2-D);

colo

r

reactio

n;

GC-F

ID

of

HDMT

5

ng/m

l

HDMT

;

1

ng/ml

others

R

f

and

color

(2-D

paper,

TLC

)

MDMT

196

7

Tanim

ukai

et

al

.

[21]

HDMT

paper

ch

romatograph

y,

T

L

C

(2-D),

color

re

action;

GC-FID

>

0.1

m

g/24

hour

Rf

and

color

(2-D)

;

G

C-RT

196

7

Tanim

ukai

et

al

.

[22]

HDMT

paper

and

TLC

(2-D);

colo

r

reactio

n;

GC-F

ID

of

HDMT

ND

Rf

and

color

(2

-D

p

ap

e

r,

T

LC

);

G

C

-R

T

196

7

Ace

bal

and

S

patz

[23]

HDMT

paper

ch

romatograph

y

(2-D)

,

colo

r

reactio

n

N

D

R

f

and

color

(2-D)

196

8

F

a

urbye

and

Pind

[24]

HDMT

paper

ch

romatograph

y

and

TLC,

colo

r

reactio

n

>

0.7

m

g/24

hour

R

f

an

d

co

lo

r

(p

ap

e

r

an

d

2

-D

T

LC

)

196

9

Sireix

and

Marini

[25]

HDMT

UV

;

pap

er

chroma

tography,

color

re

action

ND

Rf

and

color

(2-D)

196

9

Spa

tz

et

al

.

[26]

HDMT

UV

of

diazo

-deriv

;

paper

chro

matog

raphy,

color

reaction

ND

UV

;

R

f

and

color

197

0

Fisc

her

and

Spatz

[27]

HDMT

UV

;

T

LC,

color

reaction

ND

UV

;

R

f

and

color

197

0

Saa

vedra

and

Uda

be

[28]

HDMT

UV

;

T

LC,

color

reaction

ND

UV

;

R

f

and

color

197

0

Tanim

ukai

et

al

.

[29]

HNMT

,

HDMT

,

DMT,

MDMT

paper

and

TLC

(2-D);

colo

r

reactio

n;

GC-F

ID

of

HDMT

ND

R

f

an

d

co

lo

r

(2

-D

p

a

p

e

r,

T

LC

);

G

C

-R

T

197

0

H

eller

et

al

.

[30]

DMT,

MDMT

,

HDMT

GC-F

ID,

TLC

,

and

Spe

ctro

uor

ometry

2

ng/m

l

GC-R

T

and

TLC

or

spect

ro

uorom

eter

197

1

N

a

rsimhachar

i

et

al

.

[31]

DMT,

MDMT

,

HDMT

TLC

and

GC-F

ID,

veri

ed

wi

th

spect

ro

uorom

eter

5

m

g/m

l

per

24hour

for

DMT

TLC

and

GC-F

ID,

spectro

uorometer

197

1

N

a

rasimha

chari

et

al

.

[32]

NMT,

DMT,

M

DMT

TLC

and

GC-F

ID,

veri

ed

wi

th

spect

ro

uorom

eter

2

ng/m

l

TLC

and/o

r

GC-F

ID,

sp

ectro

uorom

eter

197

1

Fisc

her

et

al

.

[33]

HDMT

,

glucuro

nide

UV

;

pap

er

chroma

tography,

color

re

action

ND

UV

;

R

f

and

color

197

2

H

imwich

et

al

.

[34]

HDMT

,

DMT,

MDMT

TLC

(3

systems

),

color

reactio

n;

veri

ed

wi

th

spectro

uorom

eter

ND

Rf

,

colo

r

and

uorese

nce

197

2

N

a

rasimha

chari

et

al

.

[35]

HDMT

,

DMT,

DMT

paper

and

TLC

(2-D);

colo

r

reactio

n;

GC-F

ID

0.05

m

g/24

ho

ur

Rf

and

color

(2-D)

;

G

C-RT

197

3

W

alker

et

al

.

[36]

DMT

G

C

-M

S

;2

ft

.S

E

-3

0

g

la

ss

ca

p

ill

ar

y

co

lu

m

n

,D

M

T

-d

2

IS

,T

M

S

d

e

ri

v

0.5

ng/m

l;

m/z

202

/204,

26

0/262

GC-R

T,

two

ions

and

ra

tio

197

3

W

yatt

et

al

.

[37]

D

M

T

G

C

-M

S

;2

ft

.S

E

-3

0

g

la

ss

cap

ill

ar

y

co

lu

m

n

,D

M

T

-d

2

IS

,T

M

S

d

er

iv

0

.5

-

1

.8

n

g

/ml;

m

/z

2

0

2

/20

4,

26

0/

26

2

G

C

-R

T

,t

w

o

io

n

s

a

n

d

ra

ti

o

197

3

N

a

rasimha

chari

and

Himwi

ch

[38]

DMT,

HDMT

TLC

DAC

A

and

OPT

spray

on

cellul

ose

and

silica;

GC/M

S,

58

m/z

only

5

ng/m

l

HDMT

;

1

ng/ml

DMT

Rf

and

color

(2-D)

;G

C-RT;

GC/M

S

5

8

m

z

TI

spectrum

match

with

DMT

standard

197

4

Lipi

nski

et

al

.

[39]

DMT

G

C

-M

S

;2

ft

.S

E

-3

0

g

la

ss

ca

p

ill

ar

y

co

lu

m

n

,D

M

T

-d

2

IS

,T

M

S

d

e

ri

v

0.5

ng/m

l

G

C

-R

T

,t

w

o

io

n

s

a

n

d

ra

ti

o

197

4

Bid

der

et

al

.

[40]

D

M

T

GC-M

S;

2

ft.

SE-30

glass

ca

p

illary

col

u

mn,

D

M

T

-d

2

IS,

TMS

d

e

riv

b

lo

o

d

0

.0

5

-2

n

g

/m

l;

u

ri

n

e

0

.0

7

-

0.

2

n

g

/ml

GC-RT,

two

io

n

s

a

nd

ra

tio

197

4

N

a

rasimha

chari

et

al

.

[41]

HDMT

,

DMT,

MDMT

TLC

DAC

A

and

OPT

spray

on

cellul

ose

and

silica;

GC/M

S,

58

m/z

only

5

ng/m

l

HDMT

;

1

ng/ml

DMT

Rf

and

color

(2-D)

;G

C-RT;

GC/M

S

5

8

m

z

TI

spectrum

match

with

DMT,

HDMT

197

5

Car

penter

et

al

.

[42]

DMT,

HDMT

TLC

DAC

A

and

OPT

spray

on

cellul

ose

and

silica;

GC/M

S,

58

m/z

only

5

ng/m

l

HDMT

;

1

ng/ml

DMT

Rf

and

color

(2-D)

;G

C-RT;

GC/M

S

5

8

m

z

197

5

Chr

istian

et

al

.

[43]

DMT,

MDMT

GC-EC

D;

pac

ked

column

DMT

10

pg/ml

;

MDMT

5

pg/

ml

RT

197

5

N

a

rasimha

chari

and

Himwi

ch

[44]

DMT,

HDMT

TLC

DAC

A

and

OPT

spray

on

cellul

ose

and

silica;

GC/M

S,

58

m/z

only

5

ng/m

l

HDMT

;

1

ng/ml

DMT

Rf

and

color

(2-D)

;G

C-RT;

GC/M

S

5

8

m

z

S. A. Barker, E. H. McIlhenny and R. Strassman

Drug Testing
and Analysis

wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/dta

Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Drug Test. Analysis (2012)

Table

2.

(Co

ntinued)

Year

Aut

hor

Comp

ound

s

Anal

yzed

Dete

ction

Methods

Limit

of

Dete

ction

Con

rmation

Criter

ia

1976

Ang

rist

et

al

.

[45]

D

M

T

GC-M

S;

2

ft.

SE-30

g

la

ss

ca

p

illa

ry

co

lu

mn,

D

MT-d2

IS,

TM

S

d

eri

v

0.05

ng/m

l

RT,

two

ions

and

ratio

1976

Rodni

ght

et

al

.

[46]

DMT

GC-FID

,TLC

on

cel

lulose;

G

C/MS

2

patien

ts

and

poole

d

(10)

extrac

t

0.5

m

g/24h

our

Rf

and

colo

r;

GC-RT

;

m

a

tching

TI

MS

1976

Mur

ray

and

Oon

[47]

DMT

GC-FID

,TLC

on

cel

lulose;

G

C/MS

2

patien

ts

and

poole

d

(10)

extrac

t

20

ng

/2

4hour

Rf

and

colo

r;

GC-RT

;

G

C-MS

1976

Huszka

et

al

.

[48]

H

DMT,

DMT,

MDMT

TLC

and

GC-FID

,

v

e

rifi

ed

with

spectro

uor

ometer

4

ng/ml

TLC

and

GC-FID

,

spectro

uorom

eter

1977

Cottre

ll

et

al

.

[49]

H

DMT

HFBI

deriva

tives,

GC-ECD

<

1

nmol

/24

hour

RT

1977

Oon

et

al

.

[50]

DMT,

NMT

GC/NPD

;GC/MS

2

0

ng/24ho

ur

for

DMT;

50

ng/m

l

NMT

RT;

CI

MS

con

rmation

50

ng/24ho

ur

for

NMT

1977

Oon

and

Rodni

ght

[51]

DMT,

NMT

GC/NPD

;GC/MS

2

0

ng/24ho

ur

for

DMT

(30

ng/L)

RT;

CI

MS

con

rmation

50

ng/24ho

ur

for

NMT

1978

Rice

berg

and

Van

Vu

nakis

[52]

DMT,

HDMT

,

MDMT

Radioi

mmun

oassay

and

H

PLC

(RIA-H

PLC)

5fmo

l/ml

HDMT

or

MDMT

,

H

P

LC

R

T

a

n

d

IA

re

sp

o

n

se

15fmo

l/ml

DMT

1978

Corb

ett

et

al

.

[53]

DMT,

MDMT

GC-ECD;

HFBI

deriva

tive

DMT

10

pg/ml;

MDMT

5

pg/ml

RT;

MS

of

selected

sample

s

1979

Wal

ker

et

al

.

[54]

DMT

GC/M

S,

Selectiv

e

Ion

Monitor

ing

capill

ary

colu

mn

gas

chro

mato

graphy

10

pg/ml

who

le

blo

od

GC/

MS

RT,

m/z

58

only

1979

Mur

ray

et

al

.

[55]

DMT,

NMT

GC-NP

D,TLC

on

cellulos

e;

GC/

MS

2

patients

and

poo

led

(10)

extrac

t

20

ng/24ho

ur

DMT;

50

ng/24

hour

NMT

RT;

MS

of

selected

sample

s

1979

Checkle

y

et

al

.

[56]

DMT

GC

with

nitroge

n-sensi

tive

dete

ctor

0.5

m

g/m

l

per

24hour

RT

1979

Raisa

nen

and

Ka

rkkaine

n

[57]

DMT,

HDMT

TMS

deriva

tive

s;

GC/M

S,

mu

ltiple

ion

dete

ction

0

.1

-0

.1

5

n

g

/m

l

D

M

T

;0

.2

5

-0

.3

n

g

/m

l

HDMT

RT,

mo

lecular

ions

or

fra

gments

1979

Smyt

hies

et

al

.

[58]

DMT,

MDMT

GC/M

S

sele

cted

ion

mo

nitori

ng;

d4-

DMT,

d4

-MDMT

IS

70

pg/ml

DMT,

MDMT

RT,

ion

fragme

nts,

ratios

1980

Checkle

y

et

al

.

[59]

DMT

GC

with

nitroge

n-sensi

tive

dete

ctor

0.5

m

g/m

l

per

24hour

RT

1983

Ueb

elhack

et

al

.

[60]

DMT,

MDMT

GC-FID

ND

RT

1983

Sitar

am

et

al

.

[61]

H

DMT

HPLC/

uor

esenc

e

spectrum

>

0

.01

ng/ml

per

12

hr

RT

and

uorese

nce

spectrum

1984

Raisa

nen

et

al

.

[62]

H

DMT

TMS

deriva

tive

s;

GC/M

S,

mu

ltiple

ion

dete

ction

0

.1

-0

.1

5

n

g

/m

l

D

M

T

;0

.2

5

-0

.3

n

g

/m

l

HDMT

RT,

mo

lecular

ions

or

fra

gments

1988

Karkka

inen

et

al

.

[63]

H

DMT

TMS

deriva

tive

s;

GC/M

S,

mu

ltiple

ion

dete

ction

0

.1

-0

.1

5

n

g

/m

l

D

M

T

;0

.2

5

-0

.3

n

g

/m

l

HDMT

RT,

mo

lecular

ions

or

fra

gments

1992

Karkka

inen

and

Raisa

nen

[64]

H

DMT

TMS

deriva

tive

s;

GC/M

S,

mu

ltiple

ion

dete

ction

0

.1

-0

.1

5

n

g

/m

l

D

M

T

;0

.2

5

-0

.3

n

g

/m

l

HDMT

RT,

mo

lecular

ions

or

fra

gments

1995

Karkka

inen

et

al

.

[65]

H

DMT

TMS

deriva

tive

s;

GC/M

S,

mu

ltiple

ion

dete

ction

0

.1

-0

.1

5

n

g

/m

l

D

M

T

;0

.2

5

-0

.3

n

g

/m

l

HDMT

RT,

mo

lecular

ions

or

fra

gments

1995

Takeda

et

al

.

[66]

H

DMT,

H

NMT

3-D-H

PLC-e

lectrochemic

al

detection

50

pg/ml

R

T

an

d

e

le

ct

ro

ch

e

m

ic

al

re

sp

o

n

se

2001

Forss

trom

et

al

.

[67]

DMT,

MDMT

,

HDMT

,

NMT

HPLC/ESI-MS

-MS

0.35

ng/m

l

HDMT

;

0.1

ng/m

l

DMT

RT,

Pseud

o

molec

ular

ion,

MRM

0.1

ng/m

l

MDMT

;

0.05

ng/m

l

NMT

2005

Karkka

inen

et

al

.

[68]

DMT,

HDMT

HPLC/ESI-MS

/MS

0.3

ng/m

l

HDMT

;

0.2

ng/m

l

DMT

RT,

Pseud

o

molec

ular

ion,

MRM

2010

Eman

uele

et

al

.

[69]

H

DMT

HPLC/ESI-MS

/MS

ND

RT,

Pseud

o

molec

ular

ion,

MRM

Reports of endogenous psychedelic N, N-dimethyltryptamines in humans

Drug Testing
and Analysis

Drug Test. Analysis (2012)

Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/dta

Table

3.

Rev

iew

of

69

stud

ies

regar

ding

endo

genou

s

psychedelics

show

ing

the

yea

r,

reference,

com

pou

nds

ana

lyzed,

the

subjects

(pat

ients

and

cont

rols),

the

result

s

positive

or

negativ

e

out

of

the

total

(i.e.

4

/12)

and

the

conce

ntrations

of

the

com

pounds

obse

rved.

Acron

yms

and

abb

reviations;

HNMT

,

5-hyd

roxy-N-meth

yltryptamin

e;

meds,

medic

ation

s;

MAOI,

monoam

ine

oxidas

e

inhibi

tor;

admin,

ad-

mini

stration;

schizo,

schizophre

nia;

neg,

neg

ative;

ND,

not

dete

cted;

NA,

no

t

appli

cable

;

p

sychiat,

psychia

tric;

sig

dif,

sig

ni

cant

difference

;

Year

Author

Comp

ounds

Analyze

d

Subje

cts

Pos

itive/N

ega

tive

Co

ncentra

tion

195

5

Bumpu

s

and

Page

[1]

H

NMT,

H

DMT

4

healthy

adults

poo

led

sample

;

5

-HNMT,

HDMT

ND

195

6

Rodni

ght

[2]

H

NMT,

H

DMT

11

healthy

adults

no

HNMT

or

HDMT

detecte

d

N

D

196

1

Fischer

et

al

.

[3]

H

DMT

5

acute

schizophren

ics,

4

controls

5/5

sc

hizoph

renics

HDMT

,

4

cont

rols

neg

40

0

ng/m

l

196

1

Fischer

et

al

.

[4]

H

DMT

15

schizophren

ics,

10

controls

14/

15

HDMT

;

0/10

HDMT

ND

196

1

Feldstei

n

et

al

.

[5]

H

DMT

15

schizophren

ics,

10

controls;

no

me

ds

for

2

weeks

no

HDMT

detecte

d

N

D

196

2

Perry

et

al

.

[6]

H

DMT,

con

jugate

20

control

ch

ildren

;

6

re

ceived

MAOI

pheni

prazin

e

(3)

or

nialam

ide

(3)

1/2

0

H

DMT;

4

/6

HDMT

foll

owing

MAO

I

0.3

m

g/

100

mg

creatinine;

0.5-2.2

m

g/100

mg

creatinine

with

M

AOI

3

o

n

a

plant-free

diet

dur

ing

admin

of

neom

ycin

to

reduce

inte

stinal

or

a

196

3

Brune

et

al

.

[7]

H

DMT;

DMT

5

schizophrenics

;

3

me

ntally

de

cien

t

patien

ts;

MAO

I

isoca

rboxazi

d

plu

s

betaine

9

o

f

1

7

u

rine

sam

ples

;

0

/3;

MAOI

in

creased

schizo

symptom

s

20

-30

m

g/24

hour

HDMT

;

DMT

negativ

e

in

all

sam

ples

196

3

Perry

[8]

H

DMT;

DMT

1

8

ju

ve

n

ile

p

sy

ch

o

ti

cs

;S

o

m

e

o

n

p

la

n

t-

fr

e

e

d

ie

t

an

d

M

A

O

I

no

DMT

detecte

d;

2

positive

for

HDMT

aft

er

MAOI

30

ng/100

mg

creatinine

196

3

Sprince

et

al

.

[9]

DMT,

HDMT

4

schizophrenics

,

2

psych

oneuro

tics;

MA

OI

tranylcyprom

ine,

methio

ne

or

try

ptopha

n

no

DMT

or

HDMT

det

ected

NA

196

3

Perry

and

Schro

eder

[10]

H

DMT

7

control

and

2

p

sychotic

child

ren;

1

cont

rol

on

plan

t-free

die

t;

2

cont

rols

receive

d

MAO

I

1/2

psych

otics

HDMT

;

2/2

cont

rols

re

ceivi

ng

MAOI

NA

196

5

Franzen

and

Gross

[11]

DMT,

HDMT

blood

3

7

controls;

urine

4

6

con

trols

11/

37

blood

DMT;

37/37

ur

ine

DMT

8-55

ng/ml;

42.98

+

/

8.6

m

g/24

ho

ur

12/

37

blood

H

DMT;

4

6/46

urine

HDMT

1-40

ng/ml;

62.8

+/

7.

2

m

g/24

hour

196

5

Siegel

[12]

H

DMT

5

norma

ls,

21

schizophren

ics

no

HDMT

detecte

d

N

A

196

5

Nishimura

and

Gjes

sing

[13]

H

DMT

2

periodic

catitonia

patie

nts;

strict

die

tary

cont

rol;

phene

lzine

MAO

I

no

HDMT

detecte

d

N

A

196

5

Takesad

a

et

al

.

[14]

H

DMT

7

schizophrenics

,

8

cont

rols;

no

me

ds

3

0

day

s

n

o

HDMT

detecte

d

N

A

196

6

Runge

et

al

.

[15]

H

DMT

22

schizophren

ics

no

me

ds;

14

schizophren

ics

on

me

ds,

17

controls;

no

me

ds

60

days

no

HDMT

detecte

d

N

D

196

6

Perry

et

al

.

[16]

DMT,

HDMT

12

male

sc

hizoph

renics,

7

male

con

trols;

M

AOI

phene

lzine

admini

stere

d;

no

HDMT

or

DMT

det

ected

NA

no

meds

for

6

week

s;

no

plants

or

ch

eese

in

diet

196

6

Heller

[17]

H

D

M

T

1

1

sc

hizophrenics

,4

co

n

trols

;1

0s

ch

iz

o

p

h

re

n

ic

s,

4c

o

n

tr

o

ls

receiv

ed

M

A

OI

10/

11

HDMT

,

0/4

HDMT

;

10/10

H

DMT,

0

/4

HDMT

ND

196

7

Fischer

and

Spa

tz

[18]

H

DMT

95

schizophren

ics

w/o

tr

eatment

,

4

3

with

tr

eatment

;

102

cont

rols

71/

95

HDMT

,

16/43

HDMT

;

0/1

02

HDMT

ND

196

7

Kakim

oto

et

al

.

[19]

DMT,

HDMT

8

schizophrenic

femal

es;

tr

eated

with

me

thion

ine

and

isocarboxazid

e

(MA

OI)

no

HNMT

,

NMT,

HDMT

or

DMT

det

ected

NA

S. A. Barker, E. H. McIlhenny and R. Strassman

Drug Testing
and Analysis

wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/dta

Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Drug Test. Analysis (2012)

Table

3.

(Co

ntinued)

Year

Aut

hor

Co

mpound

s

Anal

yzed

Subje

cts

Posit

ive/N

egative

Con

centrati

on

1967

Tanim

ukai

[20]

HNMT

,

HDMT

,

NMT,

DMT,

4

m

a

le

chronic

sc

hizoph

renics;

MAO

I

tranylcyprom

ine;

special

die

t;

no

meds

4–

6

wee

ks

4/100

sam

ples

H

DMT;

3

/100

conj

ugate

d

ND

MDMT

DMT

and

MDMT

observ

ed

in

some

sam

ples

1967

Tanimuk

ai

et

al

.

[21]

HDMT

6

m

al

e

sc

h

iz

o

p

h

re

n

ic

s,

4

m

al

e

m

e

n

ta

lly

d

e

fe

ct

iv

e

pati

ents;

sp

e

ci

al

di

et;

n

o

m

ed

s

7

weeks

HDMT

;

conjuga

ted

in

all

1

0

,

free

in

7/10

>

1

m

g/24

hour

1967

Tanimuk

ai

et

al

.

[22]

HDMT

4

sc

hizoph

renics,

MAO

I

tranylcyprom

ine,

cystein

e

admin;

speci

al

diet

1/4

free

HDMT

,

3

/4

conj;

MAO

4/

4

fre

e,

3/4

conj

HDMT

4–

10

m

g/24

ho

ur

1967

Aceba

l

and

Spatz

[23]

HDMT

1

0

sc

hizoph

renics;

7

cont

rols;

patie

nts

admini

stere

d

tri

uperi

dol

7/10

HDMT

,

0/1

0

after

tri

upe

ridol;

0/

7

H

DMT

ND

1968

Faurbye

and

Pind

[24]

HDMT

7

sc

hizoph

renics,

5

cont

rols

6/7

schizophre

nics,

3/5

cont

rols

schizophre

nics

0–

3.7

m

g/24

ho

ur;

cont

rols

0–

7.5

m

g/24

hour

1969

Sireix

and

Mar

ini

[25]

HDMT

2

0

sc

hizoph

renics,

20

no

n-schiz

ophreni

cs,

20

cont

rols;

special

diets

19/20

H

DMT,

1

9/20

HDMT

,

18/2

0

schizophre

nic

me

an

of

155

ng/m

l,

no

n-

21

ng/m

l,

cont

rols

29

ng/m

l;

no

dieta

ry

effect

s

1969

Spatz

et

al

.

[26]

HDMT

6

5

sc

hizoph

renics,

73

cont

rols

65/65

sc

hizoph

renics,

73

/73

cont

rols

65/6

5

mean

172

ng/ml;

73/7

3

m

e

a

n

3

6

ng/m

l

1970

Fischer

and

Spa

tz

[27]

HDMT

6

7

con

trols,

1

1

epilepsy

,

9

dep

ression,

8

p

sy

chopathic

,86

non-tr

eated

schizophreni

cs

67/67

no

rmals,

1

1/11

epile

psy,

9/

9

dep

ression

norm

12

–89

ng/m

l,

epi

lepsy

26

–6

7

ng/m

l,

depres

s

12

–4

2

ng/m

l,

psycho

20

–54

ng/ml,

4

5

tr

eated

schizophren

ics

8/8

psych

opathi

c,

8

6/86,

45/

45

sc

hizoph

renics

schizo

17/86

1

2–

9

6

ng/m

l,

69/86

10

0–

375

ng/ml,

33

/45

10

–10

0

ng/m

l,

1

2/45

101

–21

2

ng/m

l

1970

Saavedr

a

and

U

dabe

[28]

HDMT

4

cont

rols,

25

ps

ychiatric

patien

ts,

1

1

no

n-

treated

schizo,

4

treated,

4

hysteria

all

positive

norm

17

+/

2

.7

ng/m

l,

psychia

t

24

+

/

2.8

ng/m

l,

schizo

un

treated

1

60+/

22

.7,

treate

d

3

5

+

/

10

ng/ml,

hysteria

6

9+/

9

ng/m

l

1970

Tanimuk

ai

et

al

.

[29]

HNMT

,

HDMT

,

DMT,

M

DMT

4

sc

hizoph

renics,

MAO

I

tranylcyprom

ine,

methio

nine

or

cysteine

admin;

special

die

t

4/4

HDMT

,

3/4

MNMT

,

3/4

DMT,

2/

4

M

DMT

HDMT

4–

10

m

g/24

ho

ur

1970

Heller

et

al

.

[30]

DMT,

MDMT

,

HDMT

5

acute

schi

zo

phrenics,

9

chro

nic

schizo

p

hrenics,

2

n

ormals,

1

depressive

5/5

DMT,

5/5

MDMT

,

2/5

HDMT

;

0/

12

for

others

NA

1971

Narsimh

achari

et

al

.

[31]

DMT,

MDMT

,

HDMT

2

sc

hizoph

renics,

6

cont

rols;

MAOI

tranylcyprom

ine,

cys

teine

adm

in.

2

schizip

hrenics

positive

;

6

con

trols

neg

ative

10-40

m

g/ml

1971

Narasim

hacha

ri

et

al

.

[32]

NMT,

DMT,

MDMT

2

2

ac

u

te

sc

h

iz

o

p

h

re

n

ic

s,

2

0

n

o

n

-s

ch

iz

o

p

h

re

n

ic

s

15/22

DMT

and/o

r

MDMT

,

2/2

2

H

DMT;

2/

20

positive

2

ng/ml

1971

Fischer

et

al

.

[33]

H

D

M

T

,g

lu

cu

ro

n

id

e

4

e

ac

h

,c

o

n

tr

o

l,

ac

u

te

an

d

ch

ro

n

ic

sc

iz

o

p

h

re

n

ic

s

all

positive

cont

rols

(Free

or

to

tal)

63+/

14

.3

or

9

3+/

21

ng/ml;

chronic

9

1+/

21.6

or

188

+/

1

6

ng/m

l;

Reports of endogenous psychedelic N, N-dimethyltryptamines in humans

Drug Testing
and Analysis

Drug Test. Analysis (2012)

Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/dta

Table

3.

(Co

ntinued)

Year

Aut

hor

Compounds

Anal

yzed

Subje

cts

Pos

itive/N

egative

Con

centrati

on

acute

200

+/

47

.5

o

r

28

9

+

/

78

ng/

ml

1972

Himwi

ch

et

al

.

[34]

HDMT

,

DMT,

MDMT

6

a

u

tistics,

6

controls;

special

die

ts

6

controls

neg

for

all;

5/6

autistics

positive

for

HDMT

<

3-5

m

g/24

hour

1972

Naras

imhacha

ri

et

al

.

[35]

HDMT

,

DMT,

MDMT

6

ch

ronic

schizophren

ics,

7

controls;

special

diets,

restricted

me

ds

4/6

schizo

DMT,

HDMT

;

7/7

cont

rols

neg

ative;

<

5

m

g/

24

hour

DMT;

3–

5

m

g/

24

hour

H

DMT;

0

/6,

0/7

for

MDMT

1973

Walker

et

al

.

[36]

DMT

4

5

controls

6/45

DMT

1-2

ng/m

l

1973

Wyatt

et

al

.

[37]

DMT

1

1

controls,

29

psychia

tric

patie

nts;

no

me

ds

for

30

days

1/11

DMT;

1/2

9

DMT

1.0

ng/m

l;

10

.6

ng/ml

1973

N

ar

as

im

h

ac

h

ar

i

an

d

Himwic

h

[3

8]

DMT,

HDMT

6

ch

ronic

schizophren

ics

3/6

DMT,

6/6

HDMT

HDMT

1–

3

m

g/24

hour

;

DMT

1

m

g/24

hour

7

cont

rol

1974

Lipin

ski

et

al

.

[39]

DMT

6

ch

ro

n

ic

sc

h

iz

o

,1

1

ac

u

te

sc

h

iz

o

,1

1

h

e

p

at

ic

co

m

a

2/11

acu

te

schizo

DMT

(1)

6,

(1)

1.8

1974

Bidde

r

et

al

.

[40]

DMT

3

4

with

acu

te

psychot

ic

illnes

s,

3

with

no

n

psychot

ic

ill

ness,

1

cont

rol

2/38

blo

od

DMT;

1/44

ur

ine

psych

otic

patie

nts

(1)

2.5

ng/ml,

(1)

4.6

ng/ml;

0

.76

ng/ml

1974

Naras

imhacha

ri

et

al

.

[41]

HDMT

,

DMT,

MDMT

6

ch

ronic

sc

hizophrenic

s

highly

restricted

diet,

no

dru

g

admi

nistratio

n

4

w

eeks

6/6

HDMT

;3/6

DMT;

0

/6

MDMT

1-3

m

g/24

hour

;<

1

m

g/24

hour

1975

Carpent

er

et

al

.

[42]

DMT,

HDMT

2

6

acute

schizophren

ics;

10

controls;

no

meds

for

3

weeks

4/26

DMT,

6/2

6

5

-HDMT;

4/1

0

DMT,

8/

10

HDMT

HDMT

mean

1.67

m

g/24

hr

schizo,

1

.73

m

g/24

hr

cont

rols;

DMT

not

qua

ntitated

1975

Christian

et

al

.

[43]

DMT,

MDMT

1

cont

rol

cereb

rospinal

uid

positive

for

DMT,

MDMT

ND

1975

Naras

imhacha

ri

and

Him

wich

[44]

DMT,

HDMT

4

7

infantil

e

autism

,

4

6

controls

24/4

7

H

DMT,

1

0/47

DMT;

14/4

6

H

DMT

ND

1976

Angrist

et

al

.

[45]

DMT

2

3

psychiatric

patie

nts,

17

controls

13/2

3

DMT;

7/

17

DMT

0.05-0.79

ng/ml;

0.06-0.22

ng/m

l

1976

Rodni

ght

et

al

.

[46]

DMT

1

2

2

psyciatric

patien

ts;

2

0

controls

37/1

22

DMT;

1

/20

DMT

>

500

ng/24

hour

1976

Murray

and

Oon

[47]

DMT

5

4

psychiatric

patie

nts,

14

controls;

1

patient

strict

die

t,

2

patien

ts

on

neom

ycin

23/5

4

DMT;

1/

14

DMT

DMT

>

500

ng/24

hour,

Mea

n

range

22

6–

1,717

ng/

24

hour;

cont

rol

2

2

8

ng/

24

hour

1976

Huszka

et

al

.

[48]

HDMT

,

DMT,

MDMT

7

sc

h

iz

o

p

h

re

n

ic

s,

sp

e

ci

al

d

ie

t;

M

A

O

I

p

h

e

n

e

lz

in

e

No

HDMT

,

DMT,

MDMT

detecte

d

N

A

1977

Cottrell

et

al

.

[49]

HDMT

2

0

psychiatric

patie

nts;

2

con

trols

15/2

0

H

DMT;

0

/2

HDMT

;

n

o

DMT

or

MDMT

dete

cted

1-120

nmol

HDMT

/2

4

hour

1977

Oon

et

al

.

[50]

DMT,

NMT

1

9

norma

l

19/1

9

DMT;

19

/19

NMT

DMT

range

20

–250

0

ng/24

hour

;

NMT

ra

nge

121

–3000

ng/24

hour

No

diurna

l

v

a

riation,

no

dietary

so

urce

1977

Oon

and

Rodn

ight

[51]

DMT,

NMT

6

9

patients,

24

norm

al

69/6

9

DMT;

17

/24

DMT

DMT

range

0.1-4.5

m

g/

24

hr;

DMT

ra

nge

0.1-0.5

m

g/

24

hr

1978

Riceber

g

and

Van

Vun

akis

[52]

DMT,

HDMT

,

MDMT

6

cont

rols

3/4

DMT,

1/4

MDMT

,

3/4

HDMT

,

plasma

HDMT

0.25-0.38pmol/ml

,

MDMT

0.09

pmol/

m

l,

DM

T

0

.77-3.

69pmol/ml

4/4

DMT,

2/4

MDMT

,

4/4

HDMT

,

who

le

blood

HDMT

0.11-2.64pmol/ml

,

MDMT

0.

7-2.89

pmol/ml,

DMT

0

.27-14pmol/ml

S. A. Barker, E. H. McIlhenny and R. Strassman

Drug Testing
and Analysis

wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/dta

Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Drug Test. Analysis (2012)