Attached is an advance copy of the
Report of the
Secretary-General on the situation concerning Western
Sahara for the information of the members of the Security
This report will be issued as a document of the
Security Council under the symbol S/2017/307.
10 April 2017
Report of the Secretary-General on the situation concerning
The present report is submitted pursuant to Security Council resolution 2285
(2016), by which the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission
for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) until 30 April 2017 and
requested me to provide a report to it on the situation in Western Sahara. It covers
developments since the last report dated 19 April 2016 (S/2016/355*) and describes
the situation on the ground, the status and progress of the political negotiations on
Western Sahara, the implementation of resolution 2285 (2016), the existing
challenges to the Mission’s operations and steps taken to address them.
II. Recent developments
On 14 August 2016, Morocco began clearing an area inside the Buffer Strip
below Guerguerat, in the south of the Territory, and paving a desert track linking its
position at the berm and the Mauritanian border post 3.8 kilometres to the south.
MINURSO received no advance notification of the activity.
On 18 August,
Morocco’s Coordinator with MINURSO sent a letter to the Special Representative
and Head of Mission confirming the clearance activities underway in the Guerguerat
area had started on 14 August and were being conducted by elements of the Royal
Moroccan Gendarmerie and custom officers, without the intervention of Royal
Moroccan Army personnel.
On 15 August 2016, Frente Polisario deployed armed personnel to a position
immediately beyond the southernmost reach of the road construction to stop the
Moroccan works from moving forward. These personnel were replaced on 29
August by armed elements from what the Frente Polisario has described as its
‘National Gendarmerie’, and behind it in the Buffer Strip a fully armed protection
rear guard was positioned. On 16 August, MINURSO started sending regular ground
patrols and aerial reconnaissance over Guerguerat. On 28 August the Mission
deployed a static team of military observers between the Moroccan and Frente
Polisario positions along the road during daylight hours and conveyed to the parties
its readiness to maintain a night presence if requested and should the requisite
conditions be created, including standing up a team site.
Frente Polisario insists that the presence of its armed elements in and near
Guerguerat was established in self-defence against Morocco’s attempt to change the
status quo by paving the desert track and has argued repeatedly that the potentially
explosive situation requires a solution beyond the “mere recording of violations” of
Military Agreement No.1. Frente Polisario further maintains that Morocco’s
activities in the Buffer Strip constitute a violation of both Military Agreement No.1,
which inter alia prohibits the entry of military personnel or equipment by ground or
air and the firing of weapons in or over the area, and of the 1991 ceasefire. It centers
its argument on Moroccan law, stating that the Royal Gendarmerie is an integral
* Reissued for technical reasons on 27 April 2016.
part of the Royal Moroccan Army and has military status. Frente Polisario also
argues that, when the ceasefire came into effect in 1991, there was neither an
opening in the berm nor civilian traffic between the berm and the Mauritanian
border in Guerguerat, and that today’s traffic therefore violates the status of the
Territory and of the ceasefire, since it changes the status quo of the Buffer Strip.
In its contacts with MINURSO and the Secretariat, Morocco has strongly
objected to the accusations that it violated Military Agreement No.1, which does not
prohibit civilian activities. It insists that its clearing and paving actions were an
exclusively civilian operation undertaken by a civilian contractor and its Royal
Gendarmerie and customs services to counter illicit activities and facilitate road
transport between Morocco and Mauritania and beyond and that no Royal Moroccan
Army personnel crossed the berm. Morocco also insists that the presence of Frente
Polisario inside the Buffer Strip, the hoisting of flags of the “Sahrawi Arab
Democratic Republic”, the erection of what it terms to be prohibited structures, and
the impediments to the transit of civilian vehicles are violations of Military
Agreement No.1 and an unacceptable challenge to the authority of the United
Nations and MINURSO. It has repeatedly informed MINURSO and the Secretariat
that it cannot be expected to refrain from reacting to the situation indefinitely.
On 25 August 2016, MINURSO wrote to both parties, urging them to refrain
from conducting any activity inside the Buffer Strip. On 28 August, my predecessor
released a statement calling on both parties to suspend any action that altered the
status quo and appealing to them to withdraw all armed elements to prevent any
further escalation. He also called on the parties to permit MINURSO to pursue
discussions with them to reach a resolution, stressing the need to adhere to their
obligations under the ceasefire and to respect its letter and spirit.
In early September 2016, Moroccan engineers completed paving the road up to
the position of the Royal Gendarmerie, which was approximately 120 metres from
the position of the Frente Polisario’s “National Gendarmerie”.
The Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations visited Rabat,
Laayoune and Rabouni from 21 to 24 October 2016 and conducted an aerial
reconnaissance over Guerguerat. He reiterated my predecessor’s call for both sides’
full withdrawal and received the parties’ assurances of their intention to avoid
escalation and their commitment that neither would provoke a return to hostilities.
Furthermore, in December 2016, Frente Polisario military elements were
reported in the media to have reached the coastline along the Cape Nouadhibou
peninsula south of Guerguerat, hoisting the flag of the “Sahrawi Arab Democratic
Republic” in the presence of the Frente Polisario Secretary-General. Although
MINURSO’s repeated aerial reconnaissance flights along the peninsula did not
detect any human presence, two flags were spotted. The Frente Polisario leadership
also confirmed to MINURSO that a number of its elements had “reached the
Atlantic coastline” but provided no further details.
10. Frente Polisario established additional positions manned by military elements
in the Buffer Strip along the protection rear guard. These personnel established
several structures south of the Gendarmerie line, within a radius of 2 kilometres,
consisting of small dry-wall constructions, some of which had roofs and were the
height of a person. MINURSO observed flags or insignia of “the Sahrawi Arab
Democratic Republic” in at least three of these locations, as well as tents. Morocco
submitted numerous complaints to the Secretariat and MINURSO opposing these
activities, describing them as “unacceptable provocations”.
11. Tensions continued to rise until they reached a peak in mid-February, when
Frente Polisario started impeding the movement through Guerguerat of civilian and
commercial vehicles displaying Moroccan insignia and maps showing Western
Sahara to be part of Morocco, citing the latter in particular as a deliberate
provocation. On several occasions, MINURSO observed damage caused to some
vehicles whose drivers ignored Frente Polisario’s request to stop at their position or
who stopped but were obliged to remove Moroccan insignia. Such damage included
windows broken by stones thrown by Frente Polisario elements or scratches to the
paintwork during removal of the insignia. Morocco vigorously protested these
incidents, requesting MINURSO to intervene.
12. On 25 February 2017, I issued a statement strongly urging Morocco and Frente
Polisario to unconditionally withdraw all armed elements from the Buffer Strip near
Guerguerat, to adhere to the letter and spirit of their obligations under the ceasefire
agreement, and to refrain from obstructing regular commercial traffic. On 26
February 2017, Morocco announced its unilateral withdrawal from the Buffer Strip
so as “to immediately apply and respect the request made by the United Nations
Secretary-General”. Initially, Morocco indicated that removing the Royal
Gendarmerie from the Buffer Strip would be contingent on a full removal of the
Frente Polisario’s presence and constructions and completion of the road works to
the Mauritanian border. The same day, Frente Polisario issued a statement sharing
my concerns over the situation in Guerguerat, but arguing that the situation is not an
isolated fact and that the crisis can therefore be overcome only by taking the “de-
colonization process” for Western Sahara into account, thus opening the way to its
withdrawal. The Frente Polisario also placed conditions on its withdrawal from the
Buffer Strip, including a full Moroccan withdrawal from the area, as well as
demonstrable progress in the negotiating process and on broader issues, such as
Morocco’s respect for MINURSO’s status, privileges and immunities (see below,
paragraph 58), and MINURSO’s return to full functionality.
13. All construction by Frente Polisario has now ceased. However, the
impediments to the movement of vehicles carrying Moroccan insignia and maps
continue. Meanwhile, MINURSO has maintained its temporary presence in the area
during daylight hours and stands ready to establish a longer-term presence should
the requisite conditions be created.
14. Meanwhile, MINURSO was unable to restore full functionality within the 90-
day timeframe that the Security Council had stipulated in resolution 2285 (2016).
On 12 June 2016, an agreement was reached with the Government of Morocco on
the return of 25 of the expelled international staff, who then redeployed to the
Mission. Numerous consultations have been undertaken with the Government of
Morocco on the return of the remaining affected staff. In March 2017, the
Secretariat initiated steps to address the status of those staff members who remained
However, on 4 and 5 April, the Permanent Representative of Morocco
conveyed, in separate meetings, to my Under-Secretaries-General for Political
Affairs and Peacekeeping Operations his authorities' readiness to accept the
immediate return of all 17 MINURSO staff who have been unable to return to their
duty station since March 2016.
15. A Mission Support Review (MSR) took place in MINURSO in late 2016 to
ensure that its support structure is aligned to effectively implement the mandate by
identifying ways to streamline the Mission’s work processes, rationalize staffing
levels and deliver services more efficiently.
16. Overall, the MSR provided guidelines for critical actions to enhance the
Mission support component’s robustness and agility, including restructuring Mission
Support, to include supply chain and service delivery and moving certain non-
location specific posts to Entebbe and Brindisi.
17. A Military Capability Study, finalised in March 2017, noted that the Mission’s
security posture and capacity need to be improved to best respond to the evolving
security challenges. In particular, upgrading security infrastructure at Team Sites
was identified as a priority, along with the augmentation of existing aviation
capacity to ensure the Mission is able to complete mandated observation tasks in
areas of increased threat. The adoption of adjusted patrolling and support tasks was
also noted as a positive step, while requiring regular review to ensure mandate
delivery and security. The lack of full functionality has been seen to impede the
military activities of the Mission due to the increased demands placed on military
observers to perform a variety of support tasks.
18. On 7 October 2016, general elections were held in Morocco and in that part of
Western Sahara under Moroccan control, insofar as MINURSO could ascertain,
without incident. In a letter to my predecessor dated 24 September 2016, the
Secretary-General of Frente Polisario denounced Morocco’s conduct of these
elections within Western Sahara, calling them an “illegal and provocative act given
its status as a non-self-governing territory”.
19. On 6 November 2016, King Mohammed VI delivered an address to mark the
41st anniversary of the ‘Green March”, focussing on Morocco’s application to rejoin
the African Union. Regarding Western Sahara, the King stated that Morocco’s
“southern provinces” are strong “thanks to their populations’ commitment to their
Moroccan nationality and to the nation’s political system”. The address also praised
“the specific development model and projects launched in the region”, and the
potential for Western Sahara “to become an integrated development hub, at both
regional and continental levels, and a platform for economic cooperation between
Morocco and Africa”. He also indicated that “Morocco will remain open and ever
ready to engage in constructive dialogue in order to find a final political
settlement”. Frente Polisario issued a statement strongly criticizing the substance of
the King’s speech and calling its delivery in Dakar a reflection of “its expansionist
policy against neighbours” and “a deliberate offense against Africa and its
20. In the refugee camps near Tindouf, Algeria, public life and social activities
were conducted peacefully and in a relatively calm atmosphere.
21. On 31 May 2016, the Secretary-General of Frente Polisario, Mohammed
Abdelaziz, passed away. An Extraordinary Congress of Frente Polisario was held on
8 and 9 July and, upon nomination by the Frente Polisario National Secretariat,
elected Brahim Ghali ashis successor.
III. Political activities
22. Following the last report of 19 April 2016 (S/2016/355), both parties
expressed criticism of certain of its aspects. In a letter to the Personal Envoy dated
23 April 2016, Frente Polisario’s representative in New York stated that “the
Polisario is and will remain attached to the referendum of self-determination”. In a
letter to my predecessor dated 24 April 2016, Morocco’s Permanent Representative
criticized the report as unbalanced in its presentation of the facts and the positions
of the various stakeholders.
23. The Personal Envoy began in June to consult both parties and neighbouring
states on a resumption of the negotiating process. Frente Polisario, Algeria and
Mauritania were consistently encouraging, while Morocco noted that more time was
needed before the atmosphere was conducive to a resumption.
24. The Personal Envoy addressed a letter dated 29 July 2016 to both parties and
both neighbouring states formalizing his request and indicating his desire to visit the
region before the upcoming General Assembly to review recent developments and
their implications, as well as the regional situation. Frente Polisario, Algeria and
Mauritania responded that they stood ready to receive him at any time. Morocco
replied positively in principle but deferred a concrete response. On 2 September,
Morocco’s Permanent Representative informed the Personal Envoy that Morocco
preferred to receive him after the new Government formed as a result of the 7
October legislative elections was in place.
25. On the margins of the opening session of the 70
session of the General
Assembly, the Personal Envoy consulted with a wide range of European, African,
and Latin American representatives, all of whom expressed strong but general
support for the negotiating process. He also met with senior representatives of both
parties and both neighbouring states.
26. The Minister-Delegate to the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of
Morocco, Nasser Bourita, reiterated that his country “remains a defender of, and
engaged in, the negotiating process, to which it is committed on the basis of its
autonomy initiative”. He noted that, for Morocco, the conflict is a regional dispute
with Algeria. He also indicated that the Personal Envoy would be welcome to visit
Morocco after a new Government was formed and most likely after the conclusion
of the COP22 in Marrakesh from 7 to 18 November. A member of Frente Polisario’s
National Secretariat, Mohammed Salem Ould Salek, expressed regret over the lack
of progress in the negotiating process. He emphasized the Frente’s eagerness for the
process to resume and reiterated its readiness to receive the Personal Envoy. He
also described the difficulty that the Frente was facing in maintaining the
commitment of Western Saharans to the 1991 ceasefire in the absence of any
progress toward the referendum for which the ceasefire had been established.
27. The Minister of State and Minister of Foreign Affairs and International
Cooperation of Algeria, Ramtane Lamamra, underscored the importance of reviving
the negotiating process, welcomed the Personal Envoy’s proposed visit, and stressed
that his country would play a positive role in support of the parties once the process
was again underway. The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of
Mauritania, Isselkou Ahmed Izid Bih, likewise welcomed the Personal Envoy’s visit
and stressed his county’s concern over the security situation in the region, including
the worrisome developments in the Guerguerat region of Western Sahara, as well as
the need to resolve the overall conflict, so as to improve the living conditions of all
of North Africa’s populations through economic integration.
28. On 18 October 2016, the Personal Envoy briefed the Security Council,
outlining the factors that had prevented progress to date in the negotiating process,
including the failure of one or both of the parties to implement the Council’s
guidance. He encouraged Council members to press both parties to engage in a
genuine process of preparing a fifth round of formal negotiations to be held without
preconditions and in good faith.
29. On 15 November 2016, my predecessor met with King Mohammed VI on the
margins of COP22 and underscored the importance of making progress in the
Western Sahara negotiating process, as called for in the relevant Security Council
resolutions. The King confirmed Morocco’s intention to continue working for a
solution within the United Nations framework but added that he could not meet with
the Personal Envoy prior to his departure on an extended trip through Africa. A
senior member of the Secretariat was told in a subsequent meeting that Morocco
would no longer receive the Personal Envoy because of his alleged bias in favour of
the Frente Polisario and Algeria.
30. In response to a French invitation, the Personal Envoy visited Paris from 21 to
23 November 2016 to exchange views on the stalemate in the negotiating process
and the tense situation in Guerguerat. His interlocutors expressed continued support
for United Nations efforts, heightened interest in working for revival of the
negotiating process, and a readiness for further dialogue on how best to proceed in
light of seven years of deadlock.
31. The Personal Envoy sent me a letter dated 23 January tendering his resignation
effective on the date of my choosing. On 24 January 2017, I received a Moroccan
emissary who transmitted the King’s readiness to work with me seeking a resolution
of the Western Sahara dispute and who confirmed that Morocco would no longer
receive the Personal Envoy.
32. On 29 January 2017, I met with Algerian Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal,
Minister of State and Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
Ramtane Lamamra, and Minister of Maghreb Affairs, the African Union and the
Arab League Abdelkader Messahel on the margins of the African Union summit in
Addis Ababa. We discussed the situation in Guerguerat as well as the need to
resume the negotiating process on Western Sahara. I expressed my understanding of
the complexity of the situation and my desire to maintain a frank dialogue with
Algeria as I strive to relaunch the negotiating process. The Prime Minister
reaffirmed Algeria’s readiness to continue working with the United Nations.
33. On 17 March 2017, I received the Secretary-General of Frente Polisario for an
introductory meeting that permitted him and his delegation to detail the Frente’s
position on the entire range of issues that constitute the Western Sahara dossier and
to set forth its expectations of the Secretariat and the Security Council. I expressed
my concern over the situation in Guerguerat and my disappointment that Frente
Polisario had not yet withdrawn from the Buffer Strip in response to my 25
February appeal. I confirmed my earnest intention to work to relaunch negotiating
efforts with a new dynamic and a new spirit, but insisted that I needed the parties’
help in creating the proper ambience, especially by bringing the tensions in the
Guerguerat area to an end.
IV. Activities of MINURSO
A. Operational activities
34. As at 15 March 2017, the military component of MINURSO consisted of 244
personnel, 11 of whom were female, against the authorized strength of 246. The
military component remains deployed at nine team sites and a liaison office in
35. From 1 April 2016 to 15 March 2017, MINURSO conducted 7,560 ground
patrols covering 10,32,165 kilometres, 427 aerial patrols and visited units of the
Royal Moroccan Army and the military forces of Frente Polisario to monitor
adherence to the Military Agreement. Seventy special aerial patrols were conducted
over Guerguerat and along the Cape Nouadhibou peninsula to monitor developments
beginning in August. West of the berm, MINURSO military observers regularly
visited 589 units, 38 training areas and 316 observation posts of the Royal
Moroccan Army and monitored 399 notified operational activities. East of the berm,
the military observers regularly visited 79 units, 11 training areas and 39
observation posts of the Frente Polisario military forces and monitored four notified
operational activities. The Royal Moroccan Army complained three times to
MINURSO that supporters of Frente Polisario had held demonstrations near the
berm, denouncing them
demonstrations from a distance and did not observe the presence of Frente Polisario
military forces among the demonstrators. Local cooperation with MINURSO’s team
site commanders has been maintained at a generally satisfactory level by both
36. West of the berm, MINURSO recorded four general violations by the Royal
Moroccan Army besides the nine long-standing violations indicated in report
S/2015/246, para. 25. The general violations concerned tactical reinforcements at
two strong points and one observation post, as well as failure to notify troop
movements to MINURSO on one occasion. MINURSO also recorded a violation by
the Royal Moroccan Army in relation to a shooting incident that took place into the
Buffer Strip near Mijek on 27 February 2016, leading to one civilian casualty, the
review of which could not be completed in time for the previous report (see
S/2016/355*, paragraph 6). The Royal Moroccan Army’s second line of defence 15
kilometres from the berm remained operational (see S/2016/355*, paragraph 34),
which has constituted a major long-standing violation since September 2008. In
response to MINURSO’s notifications of these long-standing violations, the Royal
Moroccan Army stated that they were “operational necessities” stemming from a
changed environment and requirements to fight terrorism, smuggling and other
illicit activities and were unrelated to the ceasefire requirements. It further stated the
need to replace 18 inoperable artillery pieces.
37. East of the berm, MINURSO observed and recorded eight general violations:
the entry of Frente Polisario military forces into the Buffer Strip on two occasions;
the temporary establishment of an observation post inside the Buffer Strip near Bir
Lahlou, the holding of a military exercise by Frente Polisario without notification to
MINURSO on two occasions; the relocation of accommodation of one company of
Frente Polisario’s armed forces and two freedom-of-movement violations. These
were in addition to the three long-standing violations indicated in a previous report.
38. MINURSO is reviewing the activities of both parties within the Guerguerat
area in light of possible violations of Military Agreement No.1 or of the spirit of the
1991 ceasefire agreement.
39. Since security concerns precluded MINURSO’s ground patrols in the Buffer
Strip and along the Cape Nouadhibou peninsula between 15 August 2016 and 15
March 2017, 74 reconnaissance flights were conducted, placing a considerable
strain on the Mission’s limited air assets. Between 29 August 2016 and 26 February
2017, MINURSO maintained a presence between the Moroccan and Frente Polisario
elements during daylight hours, which was maintained to monitor the activities of
the Frente Polisario “National Gendarmerie” after Morocco’s withdrawal on 26
February 2017. Safety concerns required personnel to withdraw overnight to the
town of Dakhmar.
B. Mine action
40. Landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERWs) continued to pose a threat
to MINURSO ceasefire monitoring efforts. As of 15 March 2017, 50 cluster bomb
strike areas and 36 minefields remain east of the berm. Morocco’s expulsion of
MINURSO mine action international staff from Laayoune in March 2016 resulted in
the suspension of demining operations east of the berm from 20 March to 15
September 2016, when the MINURSO Mine Action Coordination Centre (MACC)
resumed its operations from Tindouf, Algeria, where it relocated.
41. In support of the Mission’s ceasefire monitoring, MACC conducted clearance
of landmines and ERWs, route verification east of the berm and landmine safety
training to incoming MINURSO staff. During the reporting period, 1,856,569 m2 of
land were released and 900 explosive hazards, including 678 cluster sub-munitions,
189 unexploded ordnance items and 17 anti-tank mines, were destroyed. MACC
cleared 19 cluster strikes areas of medium to high priority and verified 65 km of
patrol routes to facilitate MINURSO patrols to the east of the berm.
42. The Royal Moroccan Army reported the clearance of more than 217,980,000
m2 of land to the west of the berm and the destruction of 949 items.
43. The security environment in the Mission’s area of responsibility continues to
be affected by the potential for regional instability. Primary responsibility for
ensuring the safety and security of United Nations personnel, assets and resources
rests with Morocco, Frente Polisario and Algeria (in and around Tindouf), which
continue to cooperate on security matters.
44. My Special Representative continued to engage with her Moroccan, Frente
Polisario and Algerian counterparts to address the changing security environment.
The Moroccan authorities continued a constructive discussion with MINURSO on
enhancing their protective measures for the United Nations west of the berm. Frente
Polisario regularly updated the Mission on possible threats and suggested further
protection measures east of the berm and in the refugee camps. The Royal Moroccan
Army and Frente Polisario positively responded to MINURSO’s requests to
augment their protection of team sites (see S/2016/355, paragraph 46). MINURSO
has also increased its alertness and situational awareness, although its security
section has been affected by limitations to its full functionality.
45. On 23 November 2016, MINURSO received information from a Member State
that a terrorist group affiliated with the “Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant” (ISIL)
had identified MINURSO team sites east of the berm as targets. The group had
published a video on 5 May 2016 calling for attacks against MINURSO and
Morocco and is also believed to have been involved in the kidnapping of three
international humanitarian workers from Rabouni, near Tindouf, Algeria, on 23
October 2011 (see S/2012/197, paragraph 51). MINURSO therefore increased
security measures around the team sites east of the berm and for MINURSO
personnel movements. Frente Polisario officials confirmed the threat and reiterated
their commitment to provide protection for MINURSO’s static team site
installations east of the berm. However, on several occasions, Frente Polisario
warned MINURSO that it was unable to guarantee the secure movements of
MINURSO’s patrols or supply convoys unless these were protected by Frente
Polisario’s mobile armed escorts.
46. In response to these warnings, the Department of Safety and Security
conducted security assessments focused on activities east of the berm, in Tindouf
and in the refugee camps, based on which the existing restriction on all night-time
movements of United Nations staff in Tindouf and the refugee camps was extended,
distance limitations were placed on ground patrols east of the berm, and remote
areas with limited Frente Polisario presence were avoided. Possible risk mitigating
measures continue to be assessed while MINURSO adjusts its processes on an
47. Observation of areas inaccessible to ground patrols has been augmented by
aerial patrols, while the logistics supply chain has been reviewed to minimise non-
critical movements. Road supplies have been limited to lifeline items, including
bulk water and fuel, as well as assets requiring ground transportation. Delivery by
air has been used for all other supplies. Added to the increased need for aerial
reconnaissance in Guerguerat, this is placing a heavy burden on MINURSO’s
limited air assets, prompting the Mission to request an additional helicopter to
increase the capacity for aerial reconnaissance, logistics demands and CASEVAC or
48. MINURSO also reviewed the static security installations at team sites east of
the berm, which had not been overhauled for a considerable time, elaborating plans
for the upgrade of security facilities to address the evolving threat. Concurrently, all
MINURSO personnel were instructed to apply extreme caution and vigilance during
movements east of the berm and around Tindouf.
49. The above measures do not offer permanent solutions for the need to provide
the most secure environment possible for the Mission’s civilian and military
personnel in the most exposed and remote locations. While the acquisition of an
additional helicopter to enhance reconnaissance capacities would certainly alleviate
the impact of the above-mentioned reduced patrol regime, more sustainable
solutions will need to be found.