Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 17(4), July 2014, pp. 584-588

 

584 

 

 

Abstract

Profit by nature and touring init that now called 

ecotourism is important part of tourism activities. Various weather, 
existing nature gifts in Mahdishahr also historical greats heritage and 
cultural, art, cultural, architecture, hand craft precious works and also 
different and beautiful attraction such as parvar protected region with 
different worth, beautiful valley splendid slop and heights, vegetable 
and animal special led to this region have necessary abilities for any 
enjoying and programming particularly in different part of tourism 
and ecotourism. Parvar protected region and Mahdishahr city play a 
special role in dividend system field to extension country tourism 
using enjoying various abilities in different fields .About study 
results can considered as model pattern for applying environmental 
abilities and systematic outlook in developmental programming and 
recognition necessary capabilities for different part of tourism and 
ecotourism and led to compiling regulations and laws for kinds of 
permissible and conditional application in region. 

 

Keywords

Ecotourism, Stable Development, Tourism. 

 

INTRODUCTION 

ourism is one of people activities that take place in 
different societies gradually, transformed with changing 
people life style and came to now stage. In today world, 

travel and tour not only is one of big international commerce 
source, but also is as important instrument for cultural 
development and growth. Tourism as a policy is a art and 
perhaps is a attribute having benefits that its development in a 
fit country is meaningful. Iran with having tourism attraction 
provided with responsible having management policy can 
became as a most important of world tourism poles and get 
meaningful foreign currency return. 
Mahdishahr with having natural potential abilities and 
equipments, ecological various properties, ecological 
attractive view, various historical building and economical 
and cultural attractions is very important as one of important 
agricultural regions. Above mentioned environmental ability 
cause to region have necessary capabilities for any special 
programming in ecotourism and tourist different parts [1]. 
Therefore recognition natural potential, ecological view, 
profitable environmental resource, cultural and natural 

attraction and preservation bioenvironmental precious works 
can have high economical effect in Mahdishahr (specially 
parvar protected region) and cause to employment and get 
return on region. In this study objective is recognition abilities 
of above mentioned region – parvar protected region for 
programming in ecotourism and its effects on parvar and 
Mahdishahr for reaching stable development. 
A theory that bring up is that seems that recognition tourism 
and ecotourism abilities of Mahdishahr can provide 
economical and social development. In analysis information 
SWOT model has been used. Analyzing with this model 
minimize one of important instrument of strategic 
management for conformity weakness and strengthens with 
opportunity and threat. First with regarding to done studies 
about region internal and external environment, list of strength 
weakness, threats and opportunities were recognized and 
finally for removing or minimizing weakness, threats and 
improving strengths of existing opportunities relate to 
extension of tourism in studied protected regions and suitable 
strategies has been provided.  
 
 
 

Table. 1 SWOT matrix and the way of determination strategies 

 

Weakness 

 

Strengths 

Matrix 

SWOT 

 

Strategies 

WO 

 

Strategies 

SO 

Opportunities 

Strategies 

WT 

 

Strategies 

ST 

Threats 

 

Reference: Makhdum, 1993 

 
 
 
 
 

Assessment tourism abilities of protected region 

parvar in Semnan

A. Abbas Arghan, B. Nima Hajati Ziabari 

A. Assistant Professor, Department of geography, Islamic Azad University, Semnan Branch, Iran    

B. MA of Spatial Planning, Department of geography, Islamic Azad University, Semnan Branch, Iran 

Nimahajati@yahoo.com 

T

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 17(4), July 2014, pp. 584-588

 

585 

 

 
 
 
 

GEOGRAPHICAL SITUATION 

Parvar protected region is situated in Mahdishahr city. This 
region limited to Mazandaran from North, Shahmirzad from 
South, to Damghan from East and to Chashm from West [2]. 
 

TOPOGRAPHY STUDIES 

Consideration topography of studied region show that it has 
relative height, as maximum height in Nizwa mountain is 
3782 meter and its minimum in Darjazin is 1350 meter. It is 
evident that region relative height reach to 2432 meter that is 
meaningful. Based on done studying about region topography 
maps, slope move than 50٪ with 46٪ have most space with 
703km. Totally we can say parvar protected region is a region 
which have different heights such as high mountain rock, hills 
and high ground that in some its parts situated pastoral space 
and shallow valley. A bow mentioned heights have 
promenade, and worth seeing attraction. These heights in 
south and east south region have steeply properties, and in 
middle districts have arboreal vegetable covering with the 
type of leave needle trees and shrub with sparse pasture 
species and in north districts there are leaf throw forest trees 
that were affected by Khazar weather. 
 

GEOLOGY STRUCTURE STUDIES 

Most part of studied region have been covered by sedimentary 
and continental stones. Volcanic and penetrating rocks also 
exist sparsely. Studied region have crumpled structure with 
crevasse. These crevasse were divided studied region to 
various tectonic that each has special properties. Effect of 
active and young tectonic can be seen in the long of coaterner 
crevasse as chaing river appearance, extends in the river 
meanders, changing the rate of jammed or withdrawed 
sediments in the long of flood way. 
 

HYDROLOGY AND CLIMATE STUDIES 

Parvar protected region is situated in southern slope of eastern 
Alborz mountain range that from north districts way affected 
by weather of north circumstances and from south way 
affected by atmospheric system on Iran central plateau. Mean 
rate of atmospheric raining in north districts of parvar is 500 
mm because of forest covering, is 260mm in central and south 
districts and in east south districts reach to 150mm, really 
raining rate is decrease from north to south and east to west 
parvar protected region have a permanent river range that 
were originated from outside of region in heights named 
Nizva and after passing west and north districts in the placed 
named kasha Roodbarak exit region and formed one of  
branches of Tajan in Mazandaran, and many canal and stream 
reach to this river that meaningful water and we can say that 
parvar region have good water situation because of shallow 
flowing in western north and north but in other region shallow 
flowing or not exist or isn’t meaningful. 
 

 
 
 
 

 

PLANT COVERING OR SOIL STUDIES 

Regions soils with means slope include low heights mountains 
with the slope 15-30٪ this soils cover most part of region and 
include number one pasture a have many potential for grazing. 
Low slope skirt soils include plateau districts and is situated 
on southern parts of limited space of studied region and from 
north to south include to steeply soils with mean abilities for 
pasture and nomadic soils with low to mean ability for 
irrigated forming. Parvar forest regions can know as Khazar 
Phylldeforest that are affected by Khazar weather and 
humidity and needle leaf forest (orszar) that cover limited 
space of region specially north and west north districts and 
formed less than one-five its area. 
 

HUMAN STUDIES (POPULATION - ECONOMIC) 

Population statics survey on different period of census 
suggested that most parvar region residence faced to 
population decrease. For example population of  Telajem  was 
91 in the census of 1365 and was in 1385, or Kulim faced to 
decreasing. This subject was seen in more village of course in 
studied village. Kavard is a exception. 
Trend of employed in agriculture to total agriculture in 
Semnan province, Semnan city, Mahdishahr, and studied 
region during previous decade suggested redoubling this 
economic part in Semnan  province, Semnan city and studied 
region. 
Employment to animal husbandry is a critical index of studied 
region and Mahdishahr that for preservation, necessity in 
programming and government economic enormous investing 
and local responsible are very noticeable. Approximately 
clans constitute move than half population that with the 
population 15000 allocated itself nearly 1milion domesticated 
animal which increased economic importance with producing 
meat and dairy products and export to adjacent provinces [3]. 
Aforesaid subject consideration in region suggested that 
industry haven’t accepted and meaningful position in region. 
Service and trading activities that done on studied village zone 
often are related to foodstuffs retailing services and 
alimentation, vehicles repair shops and house goods. 
According to received information in studied region there are 
one village cooperative company (Telajim ), one bath 7 
Islamic assembly. All villages access to filtrated water, 
electricity, and most villages cover a radio waves and original 
TV channels(1 and 2) also existence telegraph center has been 
reported. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 17(4), July 2014, pp. 584-588

 

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Table. 2 Population transformation in village of parvar 

 

Reference: Iran statistic center, 1996-2006 

 
 

Table. 3 Total area of irrigated farming lands in village of parvar 

 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Reference: Semnan General design,1999 

 
 

ANALYZING BASED ON SWOT MODEL 

 
For providing policies and strategies for development tourism 
in protected regions, recognition factors (SWOT) for 

 

remaining weakness, threats and improving strengths are 
inevitable. Based on this, policies for development this 
regions with listing most important strengths and 
opportunities aimed:  
1-Plan for aggressive strategies based on exploitation 
competing preference of protected regions. 
2-Explaining most important opportunities for removing inter-
region weakness by providing reviewing strategies for re-
allocation resources. 
3-Plan of most important inter-region strengths for removing 
intra-region threats, with emphasis on variation strategies for 
removing protected regions necessities. 
4-Plan 

of defensive strategies for removing regional 

vulnerability just as we can see from table 7 external 
opportunities, 9 external threats and 10 internal weakness 
have been identified and considered. Therefore totally we can 
say vulnerability threshold this region are very high and 
required providing and reviewing suitable policies for 
removing weakness and threats using opportunities and 
strengths. 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

Table. 4 Matrix SWOT  

 
                  External 

                          Internal 

•opportunities(o): 
O1=Increasing more motive 
for travelling and tour on 
parvar 
O2=Nearness to population 
and political poles-Mahdishahr 
and Semnan 
O3=Increasing government 
attention to programming and 
investing in tourism 
O4=Increasing motive of 
private part to investing in 
tourism part 
O5=Skilled and expert forces 
adjacent to this regions 

•Strengths(s) 
S1=Beautiful and unique 
view   
S2=High summit and 
heights  
S3=Sport and recreation 
attraction in studied region 
S4=Easy and suitable access 
to this region for tourists 
S5=Nearness to semnan, 
Mahdishahr and Shahmirzad 
S6=Traditional and local 
culture and ceremonies also 
historical and worth seeing 
places 

Number of 

family2006 

Population 

in 2006 

Number of 

family1996 

Population 

in 1996 

Number of 

family1986 

Population 

in 1986 

Village 

5 5 3 8 6 24 Parvar 
7  16 16 58 17 91 Telajim 
8 17 3  7 20 49 

Roodbarak 

bala 

7  25 14 59 15 88 Finsek 

30 85  8  25 12 37 Kavard 
21 41 23 66 30 145 Kulim 
12 18  8  19  -  - 

Roodbarak 

pain 

Total area of irrigated farming lands 

Village 

33 Parvar 
50 Kulim 

Not reported 

Kavard 

24 Telajim 
20 Finsek 

1 Roodbarak 

bala 

 

Roodbarak pain 

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 17(4), July 2014, pp. 584-588

 

587 

 

(specially semnan) 
O6=Governmental and 
nongovernmental organization 
and constitution for supporting 
and providing services and 
facilities to studied region  
O7=Increasing attention and 
protection authorities of 
tourism with employment and 
getting return from protected 
regions  

S7=Quiet and silent 
environment  
S8=suitable market for 
selling agricultural product, 
etc to tourists 
 

Threats(T): 
T1=Increasing services and 
facilities in competitor tourism 
region (specially north) 
T2=Lack of providing license 
and facilities from government 
for extension and development 
tourism equipments and 
installation in this tourism 
regions 
T3=Increasing tourism rage 
and motive for  travelling to 
adjacent regions 
T4=More population and 
crowding this regions 
compared to competitor region 
in future 
T5=Water, soil and climate 
pollution this regions 
T6=Increasing social violation 
with arrival tourists 
T7=Destruction trees and 
plants covering and pasturage 
T8=Destruction agricultural 
lands and rural farms  
T9=Destruction local culture 
and tradition 

Weakness(W): 
W1=Unsuitable residing 
facilities and equipment 
W2=Unsuitable service and 
hygienic facilities 
W3=Region people 
untendency to investing in 
tourism  
W4=Unsuitable  recreative 
facilities and equipment 
W5=Lack of skilled and 
expert forces on studied 
region 
W6=Unsuitable distribution 
of tourists in different 
seasons 
W7=Unsuitable 
environmental sub structure  
W8=lack of governmental 
programming and investing 
in this region 
W9=Different between 
culture of tourists and region 
residents 
W10=Lack of acquaintance 
of villages and lack of them 
education about  their 
contact with tourists 
 

Reference: Researcher Analyzing studies

 

 
Furthermore in this part have been tried rather than above 
cases, assess most  advantages, and limitation for prioritizing 
alternative in the view of people, authorities and tourists to get 
a qualitative result and more critical logic. Then have been 
prioritized regard  to provided opinions. Now  each of 
weakness, strengths, opportunities and threats have been 
analyzed and considered in the view of three partnership 
group in this survey. 
1-Authorities: Analyzing SWOT suggested that beautiful view 
components and green environment and gardens, then after 
that springs and different attraction are very important in 
parvar tourism development in the view of authorities. 
Also increasing more motive for travelling among people is 
most important external opportunity in the view of authorities 
although lack of desired facilities and services component in 

competitor regions compared to this region are less important 
external opportunity for develop tourism. 
2-People: Also analyze SWOT show that beautiful view 
garden and green environment are most important internal 
strengths and suitable market for selling agricultural products 
to tourism are as less important internal strengths in 
development and extension tourism in the view of people. 
Furthermore , unsuitable residing equipment and facilities in 
the region are most important internal strengths and un 
tendency to investing in different parvar of tourism are less 
important internal weakness in the view of people. 
3-Tourists: With regarding to table and SWOT model we can 
say that beautiful view, gardens and green environment are 
most important internal strengths and local and traditional 
culture and tradition are as less important internal strengths in 
tourism extension in this region in the view of tourists. 
About  external  opportunities tourists believed increasing 
more motive for tour and travelling among people are most 
important external opportunity and lack of suitable desired 
services and facilities in competitor region because of high 
crowding are as a less important for extension tourism in 
region. 
 

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 

Parvar protected region for having different natural view and 
bright  historical antecedent can turn to one of internal tourism 
important centers and following strategies can be useful: 
1-Setting skilled and proficient director in protected and 
historical places. 
2-Increasing basically and tourism facilities specially pay 
attention to residence. 
3-Informing tourists about the way of people living and 
culture and region attractions. 
4-Preventing pollution environment by tourists. 
5-Introducing tourism attraction of Semnan by mass media 
specially Semnan TV and radio. 
6-Apointing stable price for goods and services. 
7-Strengthening tourism agency and establishing hotels and 
hospitality centers with suitable quality and price.  
8-Providing long-term loan with low profit for ones who want 
to investing on tourism. 
9-Establishment  installment  tours for poor people. 

 

REFERENCES 

1-Rezvani, Ali Asghar. 1992. tourism industry and Geography 
Payam nor publicities. 
2-Semnan General plan. 1999. Part Adviser engineers sap. 
3-Arghan, Abbas. 2007. position of rural tourism in constant 
development international congress on abilities, obstacles and 
strategies of researching of Semnan and Semnan university. 
4-Dibaie, Parviz. 1992. tourism recognition, Allameh 
TabaTabaii university publication. 
5-Legal office and Majlis affairs publication Environment 
protection organization. 2004. Total regulation and laws Iran 
subsistence environment, First book-Environment protection 
organization publication.  

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 17(4), July 2014, pp. 584-588

 

588 

 

6-Makhdoom, Majid. 1993. Land logistics base،Tehran 
university publication.  
7-Iran statistic center. 2006. House and people public census. 
8-Iran statistic center. 1996. House and people public census. 
9-Majnonian, Henric. 2000. Iran protected regions, 
Environment protection organization publication. 
 
 
 
 
 

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 17(4), July 2014, pp. 589-593

 

 

 

Developing a Monitoring System for Non-point 

Pollutants in Groundwater Sources using 

BAISINS Software (Case Study of Sivand River 

before It Joins the Kor River in Fars Province) 

 

Fatemeh Foroutan

1*

, Naser Taleb Beidokhti

2

, Mohammad Mehdi Taghizadeh

3

 

1 - Department of Environment Engineering, Estahban Branch, Islamic Azad University, Estahban, Iran 

2- Full-time Assistant Professor, Shiraz Engineering University, Shiraz, Iran 

3- Full-time Assistant Professor, Estahban Branch, Islamic Azad University, Estahban, Iran 

Eng_agri_enviro@yahoo.com

*

 

*Derived from the master's thesis 

 

AbstractThe Sivand River and the Kor River are located 
in the northwest of Fars Province. The Kor River originates 
from the southern heights of the Zagros Mountains, flows 
for about 310 kilometers, and pours into Bakhtegan Lake. 
Along its course, many floodways and rivers join it, the 
most important of which is the Sivand River. The Sivand 
River flows for 47 kilometers and joins the Kor River near 
Marvdasht at Pol Khan. These two rivers are almost the 
only main sources of water needed in agricultural activities 
in the northern and central plains of the Province. Previous 
research suggested parts of the Kor-Sivand Basin had water 
of desirable quality while other sections were heavily 
polluted with varying degrees of point and nonpoint 
pollutants. The software BASINs 4.0 and the HSPF model 
were used to study more carefully the issue of pollution 
sources. The use of this model made it possible to 
investigate nonpoint pollution sources (before the Sivand 
River joins the Kor River) and the N

 and DO factors at 5-

, 10- , and 15- year intervals.   
KeywordsThe Kor River, basins, N

, DO   

 

I.  Introduction and purpose 

ran has a relatively arid climate with very little 
precipitation. Average annual rainfall in the world has 
been estimated to be about 860 millimeters while the 

average annual rainfall in Iran is less than 250 millimeters, 
or less than a third of world average. Moreover, the times 
and locations of this precipitation do not conform to those 
needed in the agriculture sector, which is the main water 
user in the country. Moreover, most Iranian cities are  
located in places where people do not have access to water 
in rivers that is directly supplied by runoff from rainfall. 

Therefore, we must accept the fact that we live in an arid 
climate and adapt ourselves to it [1].  
 The limited water sources and the population growth 
reduced per capita renewable water from 7000 

 in 1961 

to 3400 

 in 1978, to around 

 in 1988 and to about 

2100 

in 1997. Considering the rate of population 

growth, it is predicted this figure will decline to 
approximately 1750 

 in 2006 and to nearly 1300 

 in 

2021. In other words, Iran will reach the stage of water 
stress in1997 and enter the water shortage stage in 2036.     
 These predictions are based only on the quantity of 
available water, while experience has shown that some of 
the water sources, especially in drought periods, are not 
usable because they are polluted or lack acceptable quality. 
Unequal distribution of resources in the country has led to 
unsuitable distribution of population and industrial centers, 
which has been followed by many environmental problems, 
especially in relation to pollution of water sources by urban 
and industrial wastewater. 
Agriculture is the biggest water user in the country and has 
a high potential for polluting water sources. Article 50 of 
the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran states: 
In the Islamic Republic, protection of the environment, 
from which the present and future generations must receive 
increasing social support, is considered a public duty. 
Therefore, economic or other activities that are necessarily 
accompanied by environmental pollution, or by irreparable 
damage to the environment, are prohibited  
Having a safe water supply is a necessary and basic 
prerequisite for maintaining the quality of the environment 
and for enjoying economic, political, social, and cultural 

589 

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 17(4), July 2014, pp. 589-593

 

 

 

growth and development. In recent years, various types of 
pollution, including industrial wastewater, fertilizers, 
chemical pesticides, and urban wastewater, have threatened 
water sources in the country. Therefore, it is necessary to 
develop a strategy and a plan to protect water sources, to 
control their pollution, to conduct a comprehensive and all-
inclusive study of these sources, and to adopt efficient 
policies and methods for achieving the desired goals. For 
this purpose, the process of strategic planning has been used 
in “Developing a Strategy for Controlling and Reducing 
Water Pollution.” The following eight main points must be 
considered in the development of this strategy. These points 
must complement each other and be addressed 
simultaneously in the format of an integrated system [2]:      
1. A system for classifying water sources 
2. A system for classifying sources of water pollution 
3. A system for monitoring water sources and sources of 
water pollution 
4. Education, provision of information, and public 
participation 
5. Rules and regulations 
6. Financial resources 
7. Hardware and equipment 
8. Human power 
          The  Kor  River  and  the  Sivand  River  are  considered 
the two main surface water sources of Fars Province, 
thousands of farmers in the region depend on them for their 
livelihood, and they provide a large percentage of drinking 
water of Shiraz, Marvdasht, and the villages located along 
their courses. 
          Moreover, these two rives provide the water required 
by industries and factories situated on their margins. 
Therefore, this God-given resource supplies the needed 
drinking, 
agricultural, and industrial water for the main part of Fars 
Province; and, considering what was said above, greater 
care must be exercised in maintaining it and in protecting it 
against pollution.    
          The Kor River and the Sivand River are the most 
important rivers in Fars Province and most of the land under 
cultivation in Marvdasht, Korbal, and Kharameh receive 
their water from these two rivers and are irrigated by water 
received from them. On the other hand, they are the main 
water supplier of Lake Bakhtegan and Lake Tashk, which 
are two important environmental habitats. These rivers have 
a large drainage basin: the drainage basin with the greatest 
quantity of water in Fars Province. 
          The purposes of this research were as follows:  
1. To collect previous research and information on the 
situation regarding the pollution of these rivers 
2. To use available information on sources of pollution of 
the rivers, and to employ BASINS 4 in identifying sources 

of pollution and in developing a monitoring system for the 
Kor and Sivand drainage basin.  
3. To use the HSPF and PILOAD models for analyzing 
available statistics and information and for making the 
necessary predictions 
4. To analyze the available information with the purpose of 
preventing further pollution of the waters in the region 
5. To study all sources of pollution using available 
information and statistics on the drainage basin including 
industrial, mining, agricultural, urban, water transfer lines, 
and natural sources of pollution  
6. To design a monitoring plan based on software together 
with the required parameters and indicators, sampling 
frequency, precise locations of sampling stations, and type 
of monitoring (instant and continuous) 
7. To collect available information and prepare GIS maps ( 
including maps of land use, geological maps of the region, 
maps of wells, of surface waters and groundwater, etc.) 
8. To plot diagrams, graphs, and tables related to the extent 
and distribution of pollutants resulting from point- and non-
point sources. 
 

II. 

Theory and previous research 

Zohreh Nejati Jahromi et al. conducted research together 
with the Faculty Members of Shahid Chamran University of 
Ahvaz entitled, “Geostatistical Study of Nitrate Distribution 
in the Alluvial Aquifer of Dasht- e Aghili in the GIS 
Environment.” They used Geostatistical analyses (which are 
one of the best technologies used in analysis and in GIS) to 
examine the spatial distribution of nitrates in Dasht-e Aghili 
(the Aghili Valley) located north of Shushtar in Khuzestan 
Province. Geostatistical analyses search for ways to 
describe spatial continuity, to collect statistical and definite 
tools, and to model this class of changes [3].  
          Ahmad  Nohehgar  et  al.  carried out  research  entitled, 
“Explorative Investigation of Studies Conducted on 
Groundwater Sources of the Minab delta with Emphasis on 
Geotechnical and Geophysical Methods” in the format of 
geotechnical and geophysical studies. They found the 
highest quality of underground water of the delta was found 
in the section between Pol-e Minab and the Goorzanak 
village, because this area contained coarse-grained 
sediments (which are very important in raising the quality 
of underground water) [4].    
          Roozbeh  Ebrahimi  conducted  research  entitled, 
“Identification of Pollution Sources in Developing a 
Monitoring System for Water Sources using BASINS 4: 
Case Study of Shiraz Valley” in the first month of winter in 
2013. It was the first time the BASINS 4 software together 
with the HSPF and PILOAD models were used in 
developing monitoring systems for pollution sources in 
Iran.            

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Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 17(4), July 2014, pp. 589-593

 

 

 

          Research  that  has  been  carried  out  abroad  on  this 
subject includes the following: 
Emanuel Obuobie et al. conducted a study in 2006-2007 
entitled,“ Monitoring Groundwater Levels and Estimating 
Incoming Water in the Volta River in Ghana Drainage 
Basin,” at the Water Research Center of Ghana and in the 
Technical and Agricultural Engineering College of Ghana. 
They found that groundwater level changed greatly in the 
range of 1240-5000 millimeters in 2006 and in the 1600-
6800 millimeters range in 2007. They also observed that 
seasonal rainfall was the main source of discharge entering 
aquifers in the Basin (as water level rose only during the 
rainy season), that discharge of groundwater in the White 
Volta Basin varied by 2.5 to 16.5 percent, and that the 
estimated average annual rainfall led to the mean discharge 
of 7 to 8 percent [5].    
          Mehmet  Gulch  et al. conducted research entitled, 
“Developing Pollution Indicators for the Middle Section of 
the Lower Ceyhan River Basin in Turkey,” at the Technical 
University of Ankara and found many indicators in water 
concentration and/or weather quality parameters as units to 
show the general pollution situation in a region, and 
introduced several models of pollution indicators. They 
used the GIS agricultural information system and the 
ArcGIS 9.3 software to process data and to estimate and 
evaluate the pollution situation in the middle section of this 
Basin.    
 Ho Ning et al. conducted research in 2012 entitled,” Study 
of a Comprehensive Indicator of Water Quality in the Eltrix 
River,” at the Agriculture and Environment College of 
Yunnan Province in China using SPSS, and found that this 
software could perform the statistical analysis of the section 
of the Eltrix River flowing in Xinjiang region by using six 
representative indicators. This was a sensible, direct, and 
simple calculation method and was considered an effective 
way of evaluating water quality. 
 

III.  Materials and methods 

The BASINS 4 and GIS10 software was used and the 
required statistical information was obtained from the 
Water Office. Three scenarios with frequencies of 5, 10, 
and 15 years were considered for groundwater and for the 
two factors N

 and DO. 

 

IV.  Conclusions and discussion 

Figure 1 shows the Sivand River before it joins the Kor 
river and considers non-point pollutants in groundwater 
sources. The highest curve is the analysis of the software 
itself after the initial data regarding this drainage basin was 
entered into it. Considering the defined standard for DO, 
and using the developed monitoring system, the 20% 
reduction in DO will be achieved after five years ( and is 

shown in the lowermost part of the curve). Stars mark the 
critical regions.   
 
 

 

Figure 1: the Sivand River before  joining the Kor river- non-point 
(ground water) with 20% reduction in DO after 5 years 

 

 

Figure 2: The Sivand River before joining the Kor River- Non-
point (groundwater) with 20% reduction in N

 after five years.  

 

Figure 2 shows the Sivand River before it joins the Kor 
River and considers non-point pollutants in groundwater 
sources. The highest curve is the analysis of the software 
itself after the initial data regarding this drainage basin was 
entered into it. Considering the defined standard for N

and the developed monitoring system, the 20% reduction in 
N

 will be achieved after five years (and is shown in the 

lowermost part of the curve). Stars mark the critical regions. 
 
Figure 3 shows the Sivand River before it joins the Kor 
river and considers non-point pollutants in groundwater 

591

 

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 17(4), July 2014, pp. 589-593

 

 

 

sources. The highest curve is the analysis of the software 
itself after the initial data regarding this drainage basin was 
entered into it. Considering the defined standard for DO, 
and the developed monitoring system, the 40% reduction in 
DO will be achieved after 10 years (and is shown in the 
lowermost part of the curve). Stars mark the critical regions.  
 

 

Figure 3: The Sivand River before joining the Kor river- Non-
point (groundwater) with 20% reduction in DO after 10 years 

 
Figure 4 shows the Sivand River before it joins the Kor 
River and considers non-point pollutants in groundwater 
sources. The highest curve is the analysis of the software 
itself after the initial data regarding this drainage basin was 
entered into it. Considering the defined standard for N

and the developed monitoring system, the 40% reduction in 
N

 will be achieved after 10 years (and is shown in the 

lowermost part of the curve). Stars mark the critical regions. 
  

 

Figure 4: The Sivand River before joining the Kor River- Non-
point (groundwater) with 60% reduction in N

 after 15 years 

 
Figure 5 shows the Sivand River before it joins the Kor 
River and considers non-point pollutants in groundwater 
sources. The highest curve is the analysis of the software 
itself after the initial data regarding this drainage basin was 
entered into it. Considering the defined standard for DO, 
and the developed monitoring system, the 60% reduction in 
DO will be achieved after 15 years ( and is shown in the 
lowermost part of the curve). Stars mark the critical regions. 
Figure 6 shows the River Sivand before it joins the Kor 
River and considers non-point pollutants in groundwater 
sources. The highest curve is the analysis of the software 
itself after the initial data regarding this drainage basin was 
entered into it. Considering the defined standard for N

and the developed monitoring system, the 60% reduction in 
N

 will be achieved after 15 years (and is shown in the 

lowermost part of the curve). Stars mark the critical regions. 
 

 

Figure 5: The Sivand River before joining the Kor River- Non-
point (groundwater) with 60% reduction in DO after 15 years 

 

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Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 

 

ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 17(4), July 2014, pp. 589-593

 

 

 

 

Figure 6: the River Sivand before joining the Kor River- non-point 
(groundwater) with 60% reduction in N

  after 15 years 

 
Our purpose in this thesis was to develop a monitoring 
system for surface and groundwater sources, and our 
analyses using the HSPF model in BASINS software show 
that we can achieve pollution reduction by 20, 40, and 60% 
in 5, 10, and 15- year intervals.  
Comparison of the simulation by the software with the 
software monitoring system indicates that, at 5, 10, and 15- 
year intervals, DO will be reduced by 20, 40, and 60%, 
respectively.  
Comparison of the simulation by the software with the 
software monitoring system shows that, at 5, 10, and 15-
year intervals, N

 will be reduced by 20, 40, and 60%, 

respectively. 

Considering the present standards for the N

 and DO 

parameters, and taking into account the point and non-point 
pollutants in surface and groundwater sources, prediction by 
the above-mentioned model can be suitable and serve the 
purpose. 
Moreover, comparison of reductions in non-point sources of 
pollution in surface water and groundwater sources 
indicates that the analyses yield identical results.  
Furthermore, comparison of points investigated in this study 
with the same points studied in previous research shows 
that in the past the two models HSPF and PILOAD were 
used in studying them and acceptable results were obtained, 
while in this research only the HSPF model was used for 
this purpose and acceptable results were achieved. 
 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Naser Taleb 
Beidokhti who patiently supported me during the whole 
research process. I also want to thank Engineer Ebrahimi 
who guided me in this research.  
 

REFERENCES 

[1] 

Ebrahimnezhad, Mohammad, 2009, Isfahan University, River 

Ecology: Running water Structure and Function 
[2] 

Arjomandi, R. et al., 2008, Tracing Diazinon Insecticide in the 

Waters of Rice Paddies in Amol by Thin Layer Chromatography  
[3] 

Nejati Jahromi, Z. et al., Geostatistical Study of Nitrate 

Distribution in the Alluvial Aquifers of Dasht-e Aghili in the GIS 
Environment, Faculty Members of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz  
[4] 

Nohehgar, Ahmad et al., Explorative Investigation of Studies 

Conducted on Groundwater Sources of the Minab Delta with Emphasis on 
Geotechnical and Geophysical Methods   
[5] 

Yekom Consulting Engineers, 2000, Synthesis of 

Comprehensive Studies on Restoration and Development of Agriculture 
and Natural resources in Fars Province, volume 4, Irrigation Expansion, 
Tehran: The Institute of Planning Research and Agricultural Economics

 

[6] 

Lecture-2-Intro-to-HSPF-Model-Application

 

Lecture #1 

INTRODUCTION TO BASINS AND TMDLS

 

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