Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 


ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 16(4) [Supplementary Part II], September 2014, pp. 







 Tourism is one of the main factors of mobility-based 

development. Decrease in working hours and therefore increase in 
entertainment time and improvement of movement condition is a 
prominent process in tourism movement division which includes 
shortening in staying time, thus it is an undisputable factor in 
movement promotion and tourism short-term movement. Meanwhile, 
as function and physics of a space are two main characteristics of any 
space Tir parks play an effective role in trip capacity increase along 
the roads and promotion in tourism industry. This study is seeking to 
develop tourism industry with Tir parks designing standards and the 
issues of physical and functional aspects of Aftab Derakhshan Sahra 
complex in Qazvin. The methodology of mentioned study is based on 
the practical purposes with the origin of descriptive-case study. Data 
collection is in library and field study mode. The results show that 
the tendency of people to use Tir parks depends on various aspects 
such as functional, physical, perceptional, visual, social, cultural, 
economical, traffic, environmental aspects. Meanwhile, functional 
and physical aspects contain great portion which are related to some 
items including: present land uses in the complex, the location of the 
complex, space syntax, accessibility, local materials and etc. 




Tourism, Tir Park, Physics, function, Aftab 

Derakhshan Sahra, Qazvin


I.  I



Historical researches confirm that Tir parks are like awnings 
as a place to feel relaxed, a place to stay, inns as a place to 
relax between ways and needed objects provision for 
passengers and even a place to exchange objects, trading and 
social and cultural communication. The main issue is that how 
and based on which standards should these Tir parks been 
designed to eliminate the needs of the passengers on one hand 
and be a vibrant, live place filled with social communication. 
Public space which shape up by the road and attract tourists 
and improve qualitative and quantitative levels of road trips, 
will lead to improve and develop road transportation system. 




 Elnaz Shirkhanlo, Master of Art of Urban design 


 Mahdi Sashourpour, PhD of urban planning  


 Ramin Kiamehr, PhD of Transportation 

Therefore, present research is seeking to respond following 
1- What are the most significant problems in functional and 
physical aspects of Aftab Derakhshan Sahra complex in 
2- What are the universal standards of functional-physical 
design of Tir parks? 
Today some assessments and researches have been performed 
about Tir parks, while the principles of designing to attract 
more tourists, use roads and to heighten the level of the spatial 
quality in economy saving mode have been ignored. As the 
use of the land and the function happening there are the 
identifiers of a space and appropriate design of mentioned 
spaces would attract tourists, physics and its functions are 
considering significant. Aftab Derakhshan Sahra complex 
with semi-appropriate physical condition doesn’t have the 
function that is needed indeed. Thus, the study about the 
design standards of these aspects seems essential. The 
purposes of the study are: 
1- Identification, assessment and analysis of physical and 
functional issues of Aftab Derakhshan Sahra in Qazvin 
2- Promotion in qualitative aspects of Aftab Derakhshan Sahra 
by the use of physical and functional potentials 
3- Representation of physical and functional standards in 
order to design Tir parks 

II.  M



Present research is a kind of practical research that is 
performed by descriptive-analectic method. The section of 
collecting data is in library and documentary mode with field 
study base. The case study is Aftab Derakhshan Sahra in 
Qazvin where is located by the city. Eventually in order to 
analyze the data, numerical tools, Auto cad and Photoshop 
have been used. 




The experience around the world would confirm that Tir 

parks of a country vary completely from the other country. Tir 

The study on the functional and physical issues 

of Tir Parks and design standards representation 

to develop tourism industry 

Elnaz Shirkhanlo


, Mahdi Sashourpour


, Ramin Kiamehr




Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 


ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 16(4) [Supplementary Part II], September 2014, pp. 





parks of turkey and Germany for instance, depend on various 
indicators such as natural characteristics, distance, and level of 
services (Davoudi, 2001). Therefore there is no instinct 
pattern for tir parks in countries, because the properties of 
each country force the authorities to have different policies 
about Tir parks. In Saudi Arabia for example, Tir parks are 
mainly constructed for pilgrims and passengers from other 
countries (Shie, 2003). 

IV.  C





Nowadays, the cncentrtion on the services in the form of Tir 
parks in an accepted method all over the world. So, the 
governments not only concern about the economic issues of 
Tir parks, but alsoenvironmental, social, cultural, and political 
issues matter too.Turkish government for instance has 
developed an instruction to establish Tir parks on highway at 
the time of highway construction (Davoudi, 2001).  
A: Ukrain 
This Tir park which was designed by professor Frachield has 
divided services and welfare equipments at first step in a case 
that gas station which is one of the most significant items in 
Tir park is completely separated from the other parts. It is 
suggested that the project should be divided from the highway 
in a case that when user enters the project site, feels free from 
the noise of highway into the convenience of Tir park. Lurch 
Tir park is built at both east-west position incorporated with 
the nature. There is a pond in eastern Lurch which makes 
suitable space in addition to the pin-nic equipments, 
playground and green space. The building is higher than the 
parking lots. The main entrance is in parallel to the highway. 
Moreover, there are several detour entrances to the project. 
The building is in two floors which is obvious in the picture. 

Fig.1-3: the equipments of tir park in Ukrain



B: The United States  
Tir parks in the U.S are located within 6 Km and mostly 
contain equipments such as: 1- Water closet (W.C), 2- 
Playground, 3- Drinking water, 4- pergola, 5- information 
center, 6- weather report center, 7- Phone, 8- Waste baskets, 
9- Typing machine for the deaf, 10- vending machine, 11- 
Parking lot. As it is shown in the figures below, these 
equipments are designed out of the highway. 


Fig. 4: Tir park in the US. 

C: Australia 
Ground and resting place belong to the government, 
cooperating with the investor to build a resting space in a case 
that the monopoly of mentioned place is for the investor for 
30 years. After 30 years the ownership goes to the government 
or the contract is being extended since then. The distance 
between two resting places is 20-40 Km which is determined 
by the technical specialists. The area of the Tir parks usually 
are 8 hectares with some facilities including: 1- gas station, 2- 
shower, 3- mess hall, 4- children playground, 5- grocery, 6- 
parking lot, 7- car primary items shop. Some equipments and 
facilities are being introduced by the photos below.   


Fig 5 and 6: Tir parks of Astralia 


D: Iran 
This complex is located on the 20


 Km of Qazvin-Qom 

highway which includes gas station, restaurant, fast food, 
Sohan department store, coffee shop, auto repair, mosque, 
retail stand, parking and WC. 

  This complex is defenseless for climate change. 
  It doesn’t make sense of belonging in people. 
  Parking lots which are one of the most important 

elements of this complex, are mainly unidentified and 
without sunshades. 

  There is lack of green spaces to change the spirit of 

mentioned complex. 

  There is no suitable vision from the road to the 


As it is obvious from the case studies out of Iran, space 
making and place making is considered significant while in 
Iranian cases Land uses and passengers are considered 

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 


ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 16(4) [Supplementary Part II], September 2014, pp. 






Fig. 7: Land uses of Mahtab


E: studying area 
As shown in map 1, Aftab Derakhshan Sahra Tir park is 
located on 16


 Km of Qazvin-Zanjan highway by the road 

which is easily accessible for the passengers. This Tir park has 
two Northern-southern lanes in an area of 6500 m


 which the 

equipments of both sides of the road are the same. 






Map 1 (left) and figure 8 (right): the position of the studying area 

V.  D



In this section, principles of functional and physical design for 
Tir parks are presented, in a way that for each presented 
principles, an objective examples of that principle is analyzed 
in Aftab Derakhshan Sahra Tir park. So, all the data has been 
analyzed based on analysis performed along the study, 
collected literature, analyzed case study and universal 
designing standards adopted from vic road. 
A. Physical aspect: 
In this aspect of design items such as location of the Tir parks, 
their land uses and activities, the design of their interior 
buildings, used materials and the principles of accessibility in 
a Tir park is being studied. 

1. Location 

  Tir parks should be located by the main roads 

(highways) (map1) 

  The distance between highway and Tir park should be 

at least 7.5 m (figure 9) 

  The distance between two tir parks should be at least 

50 Km (map 2) 

  Tir parks should not be built perilous spots of the 


  Tir parks should be located at both sides of the 

highway (figure 8 and 10) 


Fig. 9: the minimum distance of Tir park from highway 



Map2 the distance to the closest Tir park (Ghazal) Zanjan-Qazvin 





Fig. 10 the design of checked Tir park 

2. Land uses 

  Integrity of the equipments is in higher priority than a 

complex of separated buildings in designing and 
place making (figure 11 and 12) 

  Activities and land uses should be at the center of the 

complex in a concentrated form (figure 13) 

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 


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  Parking lots either for the car or for the heavy vehicles 

should be located by the side of the site (figure 14 
and 15) 

  All of the water closets (WCs) should be located far 

from the restaurant and coffee shop (figure 16) 

  The playground of children should completely be 

divided from the mounted way and auto accessibility 
(figure 11) 

  A space for parents in order to observe their children 

at the playground should be prepared (figure 11) 


Fig. 11 an example of coherent equipments



Fig. 12 and 13 coherence of equipments and land uses 



Fig. 14 and 15 parking lots of vehicles 


  The place of restaurant and other public spaces should 

be away from the sound of highway (figure18) 

  The entrance of the restaurant should be visible from 

the parking lot (figure 17) 

  Loading stands should be separated from the main 

cycle of the cars and parking lots (figure 11) 


Fig. 16 the WC By the restaurant 



Fig. 17 and 18 Parking lots and services at Sahra Tir park 

3. Design of buildings 

  Building design of the Tir parks depends mainly on the 

climate change (figure 19) 

  All of the buildings in the Tir parks should be built 

with specific and coherent architectural methods 
based on style, height, material and color (figure 12) 

  The same structure should be used for all the facades 

of the buildings (figure 19) 

  Gas station should be shaded (figure 20) 
  Lightening of the buildings should be appropriate and 

enough (figure 22) 

  The retail stands should be lower than 240 m




  Parking lots should be shaded and located in open 

space (figure 23) 



Fig. 19 correspondence of the buildings 


Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 


ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
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Fig. 20 shaded gas station of Aftab Sahra Tir park 



Fig. 21 and 22 retails and lightening inside the complex 


Fig. 23 the shades and the roofs 

4. Accessibility 

  There should be one entrance for the Tir park to 

increase the safety (figure 27). 

  The connection between two sides of the Tir Park 

should be with underway (figure 26) 

  Left turn and U turn from one side to the other is not 

permitted (figure 26) 

  Pedestrian access between two sides of the Tir park is 

banned (figure 26) 

  The entrance of the Tir park should be safe and be out 

of the function of highway (figure 27) 

  Cars and heavy vehicles should be separated (figure 


  Parking lots should be in a position that can eliminate 

the need of pedestrian to move far distance (figure 

  Access to the restaurant should be divided from 

accessing to the gas station and vice versa (figure 25) 



Fig. 24 accessibilities to the Tir park




Fig. 25 land uses and gas staton 




Fig. 26 the connection between 2 sides of the highway 



Fig. 27 the side park by the Tir park 

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 


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Fig. 28 cluster buildings 

5. Materials 

  Materials used in the Tir parks should be climate-

appropriate (figure 29) 

  Use of reflexive glasses is banned in public spaces 

(figure 30) 

  Materials used in the contour and façade should be 

visually incorporated (figure 12) 



fig. 29 and 30 native materials (right) and typical glasses (left) 

B: Functional aspect 

The principles of functional design of Tir parks based on 
essential equipments and land uses are being represented in 
this section. Therefore, the characteristics of all land uses 
based on their functions are introduced. These principles 

  Land uses that encourage drivers to stop and relax at 

Tir parks are permitted. 

  Restaurant (figure 31) 

- Alcoholic drinks are banned in the restaurant 
- Consign the food out of the restaurant is appropriate. 

  Fast food (figure 32) 
  Retail stands (figure 33) 

- Retails and snack bars 
- Cosmetics 

  Auto repairs (emergency repairs) (figure 34) 
  Coffee shop (figure 35) 
  Parking (figure 36,37 and 38) 


Fig. 31 and 32 external and internal space of the Tir park 


Fig. 33 and 34 the retails (right) and lack of parking (left) 

- Parking should be shaded and open for various cars and 
- The parking of disable people should be close to the 

- Parking of the trucks and heavy vehicles should be in a case 
that won`t need reversing the car. 
- Parking construction out of the boarders of site is prohibited. 
- The space of parking should be dry and light 
- Parking should be flexible in a case that they could be 
transferred to other place at peak time of traffic. 

  Water closet (WC) (figure 39 and 40) 

- containing safe, relaxing and convenience water closet 
- All of the WCs should include equipments for disable people 
- Equipments to change the diapers of babies are essential 

  Gas station (figure 41) 

- Gas station of a Tir park should have all common fuels 

  Phone booth (figure 42) 
  Police station to increase satefy 
  Pharmacy 
  Bakery (figure 43) 
  Green space (lawn, and tree plantation) (figure 44) 
  Mosque or pray room (figure 45) 
  Automatic tellers machine (ATM) (figure 46) 
  Clinic 
  Safe place for children as playground (figure 47) 



Fig. 39 to 46 equipments of the Tir park 

- The equipments for children should be colorful, safe, 
interesting and exciting. 

  Restaurant in open air 

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 


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- Restaurant in open air should have sunshade, dining table 
and chair, waste basket 

  All emergency and essential services of the Tir park 

should be 24/7 available (Police, clinic etc.) 

  A place for shower is considered significant 
  Possibility of stay (figure 47) 
  A place for short time stay (figure 49) 
  Recreational equipments specially for families 
  Entrance (figure 50 and 51) 


- Entrance and exit should be designed in a case that the flow 
inside the complex stays safe and convenient. 
- All entrances should prepare the disable people`s 
accessibility as well. 
The course of mounted and pedestrian should be separated 



VI.  C



With refers to the universal experience and by the use of vic 
roads standards and Iranian and foreign case study it will be 
obvious that design standards of physical and functional 
aspects of Tir parks depends mainly on some factors such as: 
climate, physics, society, culture, tradition, religion and etc. 
and the principles which should be noted all over the world 
vary from culture to culture and country to country. Among 
these principles some land uses such as: Restaurant, retail 
stands, auto emergencies, phone booth, emergency aid, rest 
rooms, long term vacancy, parking, gas station, police station, 
bank stands, green spaces, children playground, and designed 
open space and etc. seem important and essential which 
should be located in any Tir park to reach universal standards. 
Physical standards which have been analyzed depend mainly 
on some parameters such as: location, space syntax, 
accessibility, native materials, etc.. so as these complexes 
include lots of the land uses inside the city in smaller scale 
and locate out of the cities, the main reason of them is to 
service passengers on road trips. Thus, if their open spaces are 
designed in a way that entertainment activities, conversation, 
and etc. are being available, so all of the factors of a public 
space (public, limitless, and full of communication) are being 
considered and we would have a vibrant and live space to 
attract tourists.  

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 


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Afrakhteh , H. , et al , (1390 ) , organized in coordination with the 
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nature and implications ) , the publisher . 
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comprehensive plan to locate service centers - amenities between the 
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 Urban uses are considered as the main column and 

frame of the city so that the cities are assessed according to the 
functions and services of how to establish them. Green spaces have 
different functions in the cities specially big and industrial cities 
among the urban uses. Green space improves the bioenvironmental 
conditions of the cities from one hand and provides the suitable 
conditions for citizens to spend their free time from another hand. 
The public uses cannot provide desirable services for the citizens 
because of some reasons like the high density of population, 
disordering of establishment and location, not paying attention to 
availability radius and population thresholds. This matter I more 
visible in big cities particularly for uses like the green space ( intra 
urban parks). Urban green space is so important that the existence of 
these uses is one of the indices of development of the societies today. 
The green space of the studied district (district 18 of municipality of 
Tehran) is considered in analyzing urban green space to study the 
distribution of these uses within the district. Then the data are 
analyzed  by the geographical information system (GIS) so that some 
suggestions can be proposed by the attained results for determining 
the districts disadvantaged from using public facilities (parks) and 
directing the responsible to the necessity of paying attention to 
suitable locating and distribution of green space (intra urban parks) 
within the district.  



 Intra urban parks, urban uses, urban green space, 

district 18 of Tehran, GIS 

I.  I



City is a live and dynamic system that parks and green spaces 
are parts of it. They are valuable in future development of the 
city  due to their effective role in decreasing urban density, 
making directional paths, completing and improving the 
function of the educational, cultural, residential establishments 
and of the earth sources (Karimzadegan, 2003,12 ). In spite of 
its meaning in the mind, it is not a place with some trees and 
benches, but a symbol of the cultural and social thoughts of a 


society and it is considered as an important factor in the urban 
space which is always socially, culturally and mentally 
attended by the public. It plays special role in urban planning 
(Salehifard, 2010, 51). Green space in the cities is so 
important that it is mentioned in the five important urban uses. 
The important of this use has found more important position 
since the fast and unprecedented development of the cities 
after the industrial revolution (Tiemuri, 2010, 137). The 
establishment of the urban parks is worth to be considered 
broadly due to their effect on the quality of the urban life and 
achieving the sustainable development from one hand and to 
their financial urban which is without returns for the 
municipalities (Manlun, 2003, 31). 








First, we mention some researches on this subject which we 
have used because the present research is considering the 
present condition of urban green space (intra urban parks). 
One of these researches is studies  of  location  finding  for 
making green space
 which specifies the qualified areas. This 
project is proposed by the Organization of Environment 
Protection. There is another research by Akbar Esmaili 
(2002), Considereing And Analyzing The Use Of Green 
Space(intra urban parks) From The View Of Urban Planning, 
The University of Tarbiat Modarres. This research considers 
the condition of intra cities parks by using GIS. Ashraf 
Rasulzadeh has proposed a research with the subject of 
Geographical Consideration Of The Spaces For Spending The 
Urban Children’s Leiseure Time With Emphasizing On Parks, 
case sample: Park of Shafagh, The Islamic Azad University, 
Unit of Tehran markaz. It assesses the space of Tehran City, 
different kinds of parks in neighborhood, regional and local 
scale and considers their compatibility and hierarchy 
according to the needs of the children for spending the leisure 
time and its suitability to the urban places. 

Considering the present condition of urban 

green space (intraurban parks ) by GIS(case 

sample: district 18 of Tehran) 

Parisa Mohagheghi,

 Hosein Hasanpur, 

Meisam Saberidust, 

Seid Abolghasem Naghavi 


 M.A student in geography and urban planning 

 M.A postgraduate of geography and urban planning 

 M.A student in geography and urban planning 

 teacher in the university and researcher of social science 

Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST) 


ISSN (Online): 2305-0225 
Issue 16(4) [Supplementary Part II], September 2014, pp. 





The goals and hypothesis of the research 
The main goal of this research is whether it has been paid 
attention to the vicinity uses in locating the green space (intra 
urban parks) of district 18 of Tehran? 
It seems that no attention is paid in locating the urban green 
space (intra urban parks) of district 18 of Tehran. 












Analyzing the local- special suitability is a process which 
determines the suitable place in a specified block for a certain 
use (Hopkins, 1997, p 13). The process of determining the 
compatibility, capability and qualification of part of land for a 
certain and defined use is referred as analyzing the suitability 
of land. In another word, it is a process for determining the 
qualification of land source for a certain number of uses and 
determining the level of its suitability (Yang Manlun, 2003, p: 
21) to determine the best way for future development.  
Suitability for different uses should be studied with the aim of 
growth in the best paths of the places. This analysis is an 
important method for planning. The suitability of land is 
determined according to some features like hydrology, 
geography, topography, geology, biology, social and so on 
Population growth, development of the city, the birth of 
metropolises and disappearance of the traditional and natural 
texture of the cities has continuously made the thinkers of 
designing the  urban environments look for reviving the vital 
needs of the cities like green space and natural landscapes and 
use the new equipment to do so (Khaksar, 1999). The 
scientists have understood that the green space can help the 
peace, rejuveoizing and decreasing the violence of people. 
Urban nature can provide economic advantages for both urban 
mangers and citizens besides these social and physiological 
advantages. For example, air conditioning that the trees do 
decreases the cost of decreasing the pollution and its rate. 
Moreover, the aesthetics, historic and recreational values of 
urban parks increase the attraction of the city, tourism value 
and the income (Cheisura, 2004:129). 
Urban green space is a part of urban open space whose natural 
or often artificial areas are under the cover of the trees, shrubs, 
bushes, flowers, lawns and the other plants which are 
established and maintained under human supervision and 
management and according to the related rules and specialties 
in order to improve the welfare and life condition of the 
citizens and non-rural population centers. (Esmaili, 2002:12).      
If we divide the urban green space into three categories of 
public, semi public and private according to the ownership, 
urban parks are in the category of the public green spaces. 
Basically, due to the nature of these spaces, all of the people 
can use it (Majnunian, Henrick, 1995:34). In another word, 
parks are green spaces designed with different uses for public 
to use them for research, education, recreation and health 

maintenance (planning and management organization of the 
country, 2001, 26). In fact, parks are the parts and textures of 
the city which is physically and visually available for the 
public and some activities are performed in them. In fact, they 
are places for spending leisure time, interaction, conversation, 
education and so on (Kimia, 2002, p 149).  
Returning an open space to a city where both aesthetic aspects 
and enhancement of the urban space and improvement of the 
bioenvironmental aspects, increasing the health and urban 
health are paid attention to is the main aim of the urban park. 
the urban parks plays a social, economic and ecologic role 
which has advantages like curing the mental illnesses, a 
desirable place for bringing up the children, social uniformity, 
peace maintenance. They are an index of enhancing life 
quality and development (Balam2005.p149).  
Today, although green thought and green city are considered 
as the high aims and thoughts in the developed countries, 
considering the matter of urban green space is mainly 
empirical and casual in Iran (Hataminejkad 2010, p67).one of 
the important green spaces in the cities is the urban park. As it 
was said before, urban parks are parks with the recreational, 
cultural, bioenvironmental and environment healthy making 
aspects. They service different districts of the city. Such a 
space id divided to four groups according to its extension 

1.  The neighborhood park which several housing units 

use in the neighborhood scale and it’s lea than half a 
square hectare. 

2.  The local park which is located in a neighborhood and 

it’s about twice as big as the park in the 
neighborhood scale (about one hectare). 

3.  The regional park which is located in a housing region 

and it is from two to four times bigger than the local 
park (4 hectares). 

4.  The district park which is used by the residents of a 

district. It is at least twice the regional park. It usually 
takes more than 15 minutes from the farthest point of 
the district to the park by the motor vehicles (8 
Urban parks are the products of revolutions in the 
social life and garden building methods which start 
from the Ghajar period with the other aspects of 
architecture and urbanism and its main results have 
entered the arena of urban space with half a century 
delay (Soltani, 2007:48).